HISTORY OF KAMBOJ PEOPLE
Mostly foreigners or non-Kamboja Indian people wrote the books of history. The outsiders or unattached writers no doubt can write more positively about us but they tend to miss some of the salient aspects of our tribes.
People seems to be very much ignorant about the existence of the modern descendents of the once ruling elite known as the Kambojas, now mainly scattered in the North India and Pakistan. .
These Kamboja Aryan people, the famous frontier highlanders of the by-gone era, had contributed greatly to the spread of Aryan culture in Ceylon, Cambodia and in ancient India & Iran.
Thus the Kambojas people were the true frontier people and they were living on the remoter outer skirts of mainland India on its extreme north and even beyond the Gandhara country. This land was truly the remotest lying area so far as the Madhyadesha land its people/its writers were concerned. This is one important single reason why the post-epic Sanskrit and Pali writers of Madhyadesha have written very scantily about these remote lying ancient Kamboja people, Kamboja countries & Kamboja kings in the ancient Sanskrit and Pali literatures. The is simply because the writers themselves were living far from these Kamboja people and Kamboja lands and thus were not very much updated or familiar with these remote frontier people and their kings as well as their administration systems.
Thus, we see that most of the times, whatever has been written about these Kamboja people was written as if these people were a little known people or as if they were an outsider people or a foreign tribes and further as if, they had ceased to be an active part of the main stream of the Aryan population of mainland India and were thus not to be given any detailed and respectable reckoning or account in the writings of the later Sanskrit/Pali writers. This is one glaring problem of the history of the ancient Kamboja people of the post-epic era. But if we read between the lines, all the references to Kambojas quoted in various Sanskrit and Pali scriptures, epigraphic and rock inscriptions and several foreign sources, we can draw some intelligent inferences and solid conclusions about the Kamboja people, their countries. And we can reconstruct their political, social and economic set up or system fairly accurately. The numerous learned scholars and writers on Kamboja history have done exactly the same thing and now we have started to have some believable and authentic historical material about the Kamboja country, KambojaPeople and Kamboja rulers, in the celebrated writings of some of these learned scholars. But still we have touched only the tip of the ice-berg. We have long way to go to fully know and understand the history of these famous ancient people who undoubtedly formed a very important Aryan segment of the ancient Indo-Aryan society as well as of the Iranian Aryan society as you will see as we stream through the bulk of this SANSKRIT TERM ‘KAMBOJ’ AND ITS VARIOUS.
KAMBOH- WORD DERIVATIVE
The word Kamboh and its synonymous words like Kambocha (as in Ashoka’s Dhauli Rock inscriptions), Kamboya (as in Ashoka’s Shahbajgari rock inscriptions), Kabo, Kambo, Kammo, Kamo (Panjabi), Kambhu, Kambhi, Kambe, Kambey or Cambey and Kamboi (Gujrat), Kaam, Kam, Kamma, Kaum, Camoje/Kamoj, Camojee, Camoze/Kamoz, Kamtoz (in Pushtu, the name of Shiaposh tribes, in Kafirstan (Nuristan), south-east of Hindukush), Kambodha, Kamuda, Kumuda (Vayu Purana), Komde, Komdei, Tamboza (Ptolemy), Kieufieu, (Tathatataguhya-Sutra) Kambu/Kaofu, Kipin, Chipin (Chinese), Kampoce, Kampoch, Kapoce, Kapoch, Kampotes, Kampochih (Tibetan religious texts), Kambojka, Kamboika, Kamui, Kamoi, Kamuia (Khroshti) etc etc are the Prakritic/other malformations, variants or derivatives of the original Sanskrit standard term KAMBOJ which stands for Kamboja people as well as Kamboja country
Ref : (Hindu Polity–A Constitutional History of India ( Part I & II) by Dr K. P. Jayaswal, Kamboja People and the Country by Dr. Jia Lal Kamboj D. Lit, These Kamboj People by K. S. Dardi).
The entire ancient and medieval Indian literature is replete with profuse references to Kamboja or Kamboj, which represent Kamboj people, Kamboj Prince, and Kamboj country. (e.g. “The Reference Kamboja-uluk of Panin’s Ashatadhyai (4,1,175) indicates that the reference Kamboj variously stands for Kamboja King, Kamboja Prince, Kamboja people and Kamboja country”, ref : Panini’s India, 1954, page 6 by Dr V. D. Aggerwal,. Ancient India by Dr. D. R. Bhandarker).
The word Kamboj in reference to Kamboja Vamsa, Kamboja King and Kamboja country occurs again and again in India’s Buddhist and Sanskrit religious literatures (Ref: Sir George Griesen) like Vedas, Puranas, Shastras, Mahabharta, Ramayana, Manusimirtis, Jatkas, Mudrarakshasa, Rajatrangini etc and other famous classics of ancient and medieval India like those of Panini, Yasaka, Kautalya, Bhaas, Kali Das etc etc., to mention only a few (Ref: Kamboja People and the Country by Dr J. L. Kamboj, These Kamboj People by K. S. Dardi).
The fact that the Kautalya’s Arathasastra calles the Kamboja people as Kambhoja (Ref: Kautalya’a Arathasatra 1956 translated by Dr R Shamasastry, page 407, book XI, Chapter I) obviously refers to the Persian influence (Dr N. K. Sastri, Dr D. D. Kosambi etc) on the customs and language and name of the Kamboja people of 3/4 th century B.C who were living in the Pamir/Badakshan as well as Parapamisadaen area south of Hindukush mountain systems. In some shlokas of Mahabharata, the term Kambujana has also been used in reference to the Kamboja people of Epic India. Again the word Kampoj/Kamboj/Kambu/Kambuj in reference to Kamboja country, Kamboja King, & Kamboja Vamsa etc also occurs in countless ancient and medieval rock inscriptions in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, and Cambodia (Kamboj Desh) per Dr J. L. Kamboj of Delhi University.
In Pali literature, also a variation of Kamboja occurs as KAMBOJESU.
In Persian, this word occurs as Kambujia or Kambojia in the old Persian rock inscriptions refering to Achaemenian (Kainad) kings and their vamsa i.e. “………..Later, Kamboja people crossed Sindh north-westwards and expanded into Iran where their name stands preserved as Kambujia in old persian rock inscriptions relating to Achaemenian Kings.”
(Ref: Ancient Vedic India by Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar, Vedic Index of Names & Subjects by Dr. A. A. Macdonell and Dr. A. B. Keath, Hindu World Vol I, by Benjamin Walker, Pre-Aryen et Pre-Dravidien dan d’Indi, JA (Jan-March 1926) by Sylvain Levi . Also ref to researches of Dr Hoffman, Dr Lassen, Dr Kuhn, Dr S. Sen, Dr Chattopadhya, Dr. Nariman, Dr D. R. Bhandarkar, Dr. Acharya R. Raman Pandey, K. S Dardi and other Indologists).
In the rock inscriptions in Sanskrit, Pali and Khmer language in Cambodia, we find wordKambu/Kambuj/Kampuchih/Kamboja, /Kambodscha/Kambodja, Camboja etc refering to Kambodge, Cambodge, Kambuj or Kamboj Desh (Ref: Inscriptions of Veal Kantel….Inscriptions Sanscrites de Champa et du Cambodge page 30 (e. g. Kambupuri, Kambuja etc in King Yaso Varman’s rock inscriptions Angkor Thom in Cambodia), The Cultural Heritage of India Vol II, by Dr. C. P. Ramaswami Aiyer, Vice Chancelor, Banaras Hindu University, UP, India, : Les Estats Hindouises d’Indochine et d’Indonesie 1964 by Prof G. Coedes …Translated as Indianized States of South-East 1964 ) which has been transliterated as Kambodge or Cambodge into French by the French writers from which the modern name Kambodia or Cambodia in English has originated.
The Pali chronicles (i.e. Chamadevivamsa, Jinakalamali, Mulasasna) in Chiangmai use Kamboja, and ‘Kambojaraja’ for the Kamboja king of Siridhammanagara ( Ligor) in south basin of Cambodia (Ref: : Les Estats Hindouises d’Indochine et d’Indonesie 1964 by Prof G. Coedes …Translated as Indianized States of South-East 1964 page 136). Thai chronicles left by Thai principalities (12th century AD) of upper Menam in Indo-China mentions the people of Lova in the upper basin as ‘Kambojas of Lova’ (op cit page 161). Sylvain Levi identifies Tambuza or Tamboza of Ptolemy’s geography, with the Sanskrit Kamboj (Pre-Aryen et Pre-Dravidien dans l’Inde, JA January-March, 1926 by Sylvain Levi) and the word Cape Camboj seems to have been used for Cambodia. (Ref: Intercourse Between India & the Western World 1971 page 133 by H. G. Rawlinson M.A. I.E.S).
In the Chinese writings, the reference occurs as Kambu/Kafu/Kaofu for Kambojas of India and Chen-la for Khmer Kambojas of Cambodia.
The Tuthagataguhya-Sutra of Ratnakuta Collections of the Buddhist religion uses the word Kieufieu for the Kamboja people and Kamboja country. The reference Kieufieu of Tuthagataguhya-Sutra stands translated variously as Kampoce, Kampochih, Kapoch and Kapoce and Kampotse etc in the Tibetan religious texts. According to Tibetan religious text Paag-Saam-Jone-Zang, the country between Bengal and Burma was known as Kampotse. The Kamboja country mentioned in the Braham Purana of Sanskrit literature refers to this very same Kampotse country located in the eastern parts of India, in the neighborhood of Assam, sandwiched between Burma and Bengal. The author of Vayu Purana uses Kumuda-dvipa for Kusha-dvipa. This Kusha-dvipa or Kumuda-dvipa is the Alexandrian Sugadha Strapi (Sogdiana) situated on north west frontiers of India comprising northern parts of Tajikstan and Uzbekstan and which country appears named variously in ancient writings as Kumuda, Komuda, Komdai, Komdei, Kamdei, Kamdesh or Kambojdesh etc. This Kumuda and Ptolemy’s Komdei (Kamdesh or Kambojdesh) are synominous words and they both stand for Komdesh, Kamdesh or Kamboj desh i.e Kamboja country of Kamboja people of the Iranian affinities living on the borders of ancient India and ancient Iran i.e. in the Badakshan/Pamirs and surrounding regions, says Dr. Buddha Parkash (Ref: India and the World 1964 page 71 by Dr. Buddha Parkash, Kamboja People and the Country by Dr. J. Lal Kamboj. Also ref. to researches of Dr H. C. Seth, Dr. P. C. Baghchi and other historians).
Another modified version of Kamboj is described as Kamusa, Kamuda, Kamuia, Kamoia, Kambuja, Kambujaka and Kambojaka etc in the Mathura lion Capital Inscriptions (Kharoshti language). “The reference Kamusa, Kamuda, Kamuia, Kambojaka etc represents the name of the Kambuja (Kamboja) tribe”, says famous Indian historian Dr. Nil Kanth Sastri (vide Comprehensive History of India Vol 2, page 270 by Dr N. K. Sastri. Also ref to works of Dr Buddha Parkash, Dr R. K. Mukerjee, Dr J. Lal Kamboj etc).
Several Greek historians use Cambysis for Kamboj or Kambujia (O.P.) while referring to several Kamboja kings (Cambysis I, Cambysis II or Kambojia I, Kambojia II.. etc) of Achaemenian dynasty. The word Kamboj appearing in IRDA Copper Plate (i.e Kamboj-Vamsa-Tilak) and the Kamboja appearing in Dinaaj Pore Capitol Inscriptions (i.e Gaudesewara Kamboja) are used for the Kamboja Vamsa of several Kamboja Kings of Gaur Desa as well as a compellation used by one victorious Kamboja King i.e. Gaudeswara Kamboj ruling also over Gaur desh in the 9 th century AD. In the Mathura Lion Capitol Inscriptions, we find this word inscribed in Khroshti as Kambojka/Kamuia (Queen Aiyasi Kambojka/Kamuia) and Kamui/Kamudha (Prince Khrosta Kamui/Kamudha etc). We can also find the term Kamboja in its Perkritized form in the Kamaon hills of the Himalyan foothill spurs, adjoining Pauri-Garhwal area, where the Kamboja once held their own and gave their own name to these hills. Some writers and historians have used word Kanauj in the same context as the word Kamboj (Idrisi) while others opine that the word Kanyakubja from which word Kanauj evolved is yet another variation of the original Sanskritic word Kamboj (H. S. Thind etc). In Kathiawar, Gujrat, we find some Indo Aryan Kasatrya caste now engaged mainly in Agriculture and are refered to as Kambhi, Kambhe etc (Ref: Historical and Cultural Dictionery of India 1976, page 141 by George Thomas Kurian)
There is also famous medieval sea port town called Kambey or Cambey, and there is said to be another geographical place called Kamboi (Ref: Hist and Culture of Indian People, Delhi Sultanate page 155, By Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar)) or Kambhu, a famed historical place name, a site of war during 1392 between Zafar Khan and Farhat Mulk of Gujrat (vide ref: Chronology of Indian History, Vol II, 1972 by C. Mabel Duff).
These words are undoubtedly the Prakritic variants of the original Sanskritic word ‘Kamboja’ and are reminiscent of the Western Rajayapalas (Kashatrapas) who, after the death of Kamboja emperor Mause or Moga of Taxilla (20BC -22AD), had become independent and later ruled over Malwa/Kathiawar from the start of Christian era until the end of 3rd century AD. These Western Rajayapalas have been identified as Kamboja people by historians
(Ref: Ancient India Vol III, page 94, 125 by Dr. T. L. Shah).
We can find numerous Kamboja subcastes like Jammu,Gandhi, Chandi, Chandna, Dhote, Vinayak, Patnayak, Torna/Taruna, Sarang, Nagpaul, Soni, Asoi, Kaura, Juj etc still intact in Gujrat. Sri Guru Gobind Singh ji, while refering to the invasion of Alexandra of Macedonia, uses the reference Kamboj for the frontier people or Uttarpatha people, living on northwest frontiers of India (‘Kamboj, Kilmak kathin pal me kat dare’: vide Triya Chritra 217 page 1125 of Sri Dasam Granth Sahib 2024 published by Bhai Jawahar Singh, Bhai Kirpal Singh Amritsar).
The word Kamboj referring to Kamboja People appears also in Ashoka’s Girnar, Kalsi and Mansehra rock inscriptions, though we also find Kambocha in Ashoka’s Dhauli Rock inscriptions and Kamboya in Shahbajgarhi rock inscriptions, in reference to the same people. “The name Kambo (Kamboj) of numerous Hindu caste found in Panjab is derived from this Kamboya of Ashoka’s Shahbajgarhi rock inscription” says celebrated Dr. K. P. Jayaswal. (Ref: Hindu Polity –A constitutional History of India (Part 1 & 2) by Dr K. P. Jayaswal).
A PROMINENT RULING ELITE, OF MUSLIM ERA
According to well known historian, Mr A. L. Bhasham:
“The administrative reforms of Akbar had over-hauled the entire set up of muslem leadership. Not only the Iranians but even the Afghans as well as Indian Moslems like Sheikhzadas, Sayads & Kambohs formed an equal partners in the administrative set up of the Moslem rule.” (Cultural History of India by A. L. Basham, Oxford, 1975, p 261).
The Ain-I-Akbari of Abu Fazal (Translated by H. Blochman) states that :
“under Akbar and Jahangir, it was indeed a matter of distinction to belong to the Kamboh (Kamboj) caste and that no Kamboh was in economically bad circumstances in whole of India during this period”. (Aina-I-Akbari by Abu Fazal, Trans H. Blochman).
“Thus during the mediaval period, the Kambohs or Kambojs were considered and classed among the ruling elites” [Dr. (Prof) Jaspaul K Dhanju].
“The Moslem rule was indeed a golden period for the Indian Kambojas after they had lost their ancient kingdoms in course of time” , rightly states S Kirpal Singh Dardi.[These Kamboj People, 1980, p 202, K. S. Dardi].
(1) Among the Zuberi Kamboh Moslems, the name of Makhdum Sheikh Samayudin Kamboh (also called Sheikh Nasirudin Kamboh) is very prominent. He was born in 1405 in Multan in Pakistan. His father Maulana Sheikh Fakhrudin was a respectable religious leader of the time. Makhdum Sheikh Samayudin was the royal religious adviser or Pir to emperor Behlol Lodhi and later to Sikandar Lodhi and commanded greatest respect amongst the entire religious community of the time.
(2) Mufti Jamal-u-din Kamboh was the grand son of Makhdum Sheikh Samayudin(Sheikh Nasirudin Kamboh) Zuberi. Jamaludin remained chief Judge of Delhi during the reigns of Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi, Emperor Babur and his son Emperor Hamayun. Interestingly, he maintained this prestigious position during the brief rule of Pathan ruler Sher Shah Suri also. Probably, he was also the Chief Justice of Delhi during Akbar times. This is because he lived more than 90 long years and thereby, he must have been also a contemporary of Akbar for some times. Therefore, he must have maintained his highly respected position during the days of Akbar also. He died in 484 Hijri (Aina-a-Akbari by Abu Fazal Alami, English Trans H. Blocheman, Second Ed, 1965, p 614). His respectable father and Mia Ladan Khan Kamboh, his uncle, a welknown scholar of his times, tutored him. Author of Muntakhbu-a-Twarikh writes: “Mia Jamal-u-din delivered religious sermons. He never went to the homes of the emperor and other Aristocratic Amirs/Viziers. He always kept company with the Danashmands (intellectuals), philosophers, holymen and high class respected magistrates. Numerous of his students became great intellectuals and philosophers of their times.”
(3) Mian Ladan Khan Kamboh : was son of Sheikh Nasirudin Kamboh: He was a scholar and philosopher Moslem Kamboh from the Zuberi Kamboh line. He was the intellectual and religious teacher of Mian Jamal-u-din Kamboh.
(4) Sheikh Jamali Kamboh : “He was one of the greatest poets-cum-scholar of the times in Persian language. He was much a respected and favored religious personage in the court of Sikandar Lodhi and later that of Babur. He had traveled to Arab, Egypt, Rome, Sham, Iran, Irak, Turkistan, and Afghanistan countries in those days of limited communication means. He had greatly enriched Persian literature and is considered a great sufi poet and philosopher of Persian literature”.(ref: Silsila Alya, by Anayat Hussain Mahravi)
(5 )Nawab Aitmad-Al-Malik Kamboh Sambhvi: Was a great Surbeer Yodha …a very brave person who had steadfastly helped Sher Shah Suri in defeating Hamayun. As a result, when Sher Shah Suri later became emperor, Nawab Aitmad al Malik Kamboh was appointed his prime minister. Nawab sahib was instrumental in moulding Emperor Sher Shah Suri to concentrate on the administrative reforms for the benefit of the public whom he ruled. Thus Sher Shah under took, with his help, to open numerous hospitals for men & animals, dug up wells, erect Sarais or Dharamshalas etc. He also pioneered the land reforms to improve the economic condition of farmers and increase food produce. This great person is the author of Great Trunk Road which lies now between Peshawar and Calcutta. Sher Shah Suri and Nawab Aitmad al Malik Kamboh are remembered for these works they undertook for the welfare of the public in a short span of only six years of Sher Sha Suri’s rule.
(6) Sheikh Abdul Gadai Kamboh : Had been a great religious leader during the times of Hamayun and Akbar. He was sada-a-sadur (Chief-Justice or administrative General) of Akbar. He was the son of Sheikh Jamali, who was a great Sufi and poet of Persian language. Sheikh Gadai was greatest scholar of Akbar times and always kept company with great scholars and philosophers of the times. Everyone in Darbar-a-Akbari was obligated to bow his head and shake his beard to pay obeisance to Akbar as entered the court. But Sheikh Gadai Kamboh was an exception. Rather, the emperor personally would visit Shiekh Gadai Sahib to obtain his blessings. He had limitless powers in the matter of Administration in Darbari-a-Akbari. He had unlimited powers to grant & take back fiefs and pass on & remit death sentences etc. He undertook numerous reforms including land reforms. He was also a famous poet of Persian language.
According Muntakhbu-a-Twarikh, “He obtained the position of Sadar-a-Sadur. In the religious affairs in India, Khorasan, Irans, and the Central Asian countries beyond the Oxus river, for many years he continued to be considered the chief among the Pirs and great religious leaders of these countries. He was indeed a born poet and wrote numerous poetry in the Indian tradition and sung them in scholarly gatherings about which he was always very excited. He would visit the Dargahs of Saints, Pirs & religious philosophers and would arrange annual fairs on their ursa. He breathed his last in 976 Hijri (1568/69).” [Muntakhbu-a-Twarikh]
(7) Sheikh Hasham Khan Kamboh was grand son of Mufti Jamaludin Zuberi. He was a famous Manasabdar (General) during the reign of Jahangir.
(8) Nawab Amadul Malik Kamboh : He was the grand son of Sheikh Hasham Khan. He was the chief justice of Lahore during Shah Jahan. Later, he became the governor of Lahore and Multan during the rule of Aurangzeb.
(9) Sheikh Abdul Aziz Multani : Was Prime minister of Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi.
(10) Hasham Mohammad Akram Khan Kamboh was the chief justice of Delhi during the times of Aurangzeb.
(11) Shah Baaz Khan Kamboh : General Shahbaz Khan was one of the finest general of Emperor Akbar. Credit for most of Akbar ‘s expansions goes to this valiant Shah Baaz Khan Kamboh. Shahbaaz Khan won for Akbar the territories of Jaunpore, Bengal, Avadh, Ajmer, Udaypore, Jodhpore, Southern and Western Punjab etc. This valiant general had reduced to submission the famous Rajput Hindu chiefs like Rajaput Rana Partap, Raja Jai Chandra sen, Rana Komalgir, Rana Sangram and Raja of Surat etc. The famed Rana Partap, a proud Rajput was decisively crushed by Shahbaaz Khan and there was enormous blood shed resorted by Shabaaz upon the soldiery of Rana Partap. Rana Partap however, succeeded in saving his life by escaping from the siege of Shahbaaz Khan in the guise of a recluse or an ascetic.
Abu Fazal states that Shahbaaz Khan was an excellent general, faithful officer but he also accuses him of fanaticism. In matter of magnanimity and generosity he had no equals and his collegue generals were jealous that he has got a parse or a touchstone in his possession. His army division was always found in the best possible condition. He owned an excellent fleet of 10,000 horsemen which was made up entirely of the Kamboja soldiers. The total annual pay for his unit was over Rs 30,00000.00 in those good old days .He was the best friend of the Kambojs of whatever religion they came from and had helped them to the best of his capacity. It is stated in the Ain-a-Akbari that he helped and gave so much to the Kambohs that not even a single Kamboj was in a bad economic condition in those days.(Aina-a-Akbari by Abu-Fazal Alami Trans by H. Blochman, 1965, Second Edition).
The well known saying ‘Kukur Kaan Kamboh Kabila Palde’ had indeed become vogue as a consequence to Shah Baaz Khaan’s over-generosity towards his ethnicl kins from Kamboja tribe.
Daily, Shabaaz Khan would donate 100 Asharafis to the poor in the name of famous Gavas, Abdul Kadu-a-Jilani. By his valiant achievements in the field of military, Akbar was so much pleased with him that he awarded him jagir after jagir. Probably, he was the richest General of his times and thus also earned the jealousy of numerous people like Birbal, a Hindu minister in Akbar’s court. After Akbar, his enemies succeeded in prevailing upon Jahangir to seize from his successors the entire fiefdom and other estate he had been awarded by Akbar for his military achievements.
Shahbaaz Khan was indeed a very arrogant General and his clash in the court of Akbar with other Generals and ministers was a routine matter. But as he was an excellent general and faithful officer, Akbar had a great regard and appreciation for Shahbaaz Khan and liked to invite Shahbaaz khan to keep company with him. In the matters of religion (Islam) Shah Baaz Khan did not even care for Akbar’s authority and even defied Akbar at times. His arrogance & fanaticism indeed earned obsctacles in his way for further promotion as he did not achieve what he was really worth for. (Abu Fazal in Aina-a-Akbari). He was dedicated Nimazi and never failed in the performance of five nimaaza/day.
The above text is based on Aina-a-Akbari by Abu-Fazal (Translated by H. Blochman.) [Ref p 436-444, 344, 365, 382, 197, 347, 197, 440 etc).
(12) Ilham-u-lah Kamboh : He was the son of General Shah Baaz Khan Kamboh. He held a position of Diwantan for Baglana but soon he died there. (Aina-A-Akbari by Abu Fazal, Trans H. Blochman, 1965, Second Edition, p 440)
(13) General Ranbaaz Khan : He was son of General Shah Baaz Khan. Originally he commanded a cavaliery of 1200 soldiers. Later he was promoted and became 2000 manasabdar (General) in the reign of Shah Jahan after 13 years of meritorious service. During 20th year of his service, he was propmoted and became full general for the military expedition that was sent to Bangash (Aina-A-Akbari by Abu Fazal, Trans H. Blochman, 1965, Second Edition, p 440)
(14) Maulana Sheikh Hamad, Bin Fazal Allah Jamali Multani Kamboh : He was son-in-law as well as desciple of Hazrat Sheikh Samayudin. He was the religious tutor of Emperor Sikandhar Lodhi.
(15) Sheikh Abdul Aziz Multani Kamboh : He was the prime minister of Ibrahim Lodhi.
(16) Nawab Iatmadul Malik Sambhvi Kamboh : was a senior minister (some say Prime minister) of Pathan ruler Sher Shah Suri.
(17) Sheikh Abdul Moman Kamboh : He was from Aristocrats of Sambhal. He was minister in the court of Shah Jahan.
(18) Nawab Sadula Khan Chanyoti Kamboh : He was the prime minister of Shah Jahan and carried out his responsibilities of prime ministership very well.
(19) Nawab Vakaral Malik, Maulvi Mushtak Hussain : Was the governor of southern state of Nizam Haidrabad, later became home minister of Haydrabad and later his deputy prime minister. For long time he had been secretary of Aligarh Moslem University.
(20) Sheikh Anaytulah was a Moslem Kamboj from Lahore. By virtue of his intelligence and abilities, he was promoted as Mir Munshi (General) and later a minister in the court of Shah Jahan.
(21) Sheikh Mohammad Saleh Kamboh Lahori : He was nephew (sister’s son) of Sheikh Anayatulah. He was a Diwan of Lahore during Shah Jahan. He wrote a book Shah-Jahan-nama in Persian language. This is a well known book in history.
(22) Khwaja Hassan Multani Kamboh : He was a Multani Kamboh. Sher Shah Suri awarded him rulership of Pargana Marhara in 1502. He was very respected courtier in Darbare Sher Shah Suri.
(23) Abu Mohammad Khan Multani Kamboh : son of Khwaja Hassan Multani, was a Amir Vizier in the court of Aurangzeb.
(24 )Nawab Bahudur Khan Merathi : was another a Amir Vizier in the court of Emperor Aurangzeb.
(25) Nawab Dadan Khan : He remained for some time the Governor of Lahore and had some tussels with rebel Sikhs.
(26) Nawab Mohabat Khan : He was son of Nawab Dadan Khan. He remained the Governor of Peshawar.
(27) Nawab Khair Andesh Khan : Was first son of Nawab Mohabat Khan. Very able person indeed. When the governorship of Gujarat fell vacant, in his choice of the names for the vacant position, Emperor Aurangzeb wrote to his prime minister Jamal-tal-Malik Asand Khan that for the governorship of Gujarat, he does not see more able a person than Khair Andesh Khan Kamboh.
(27) Nawab Khairyat Andesh Khan : Nawab Mohabat Khan’s second son Khairyat Andesh Khan was 5000 Manasbdar (General) and was also a governor of Kashmir. This sahib had constructed the Nawab Bazar of Kashmir.
(28) Ahisan Ali Khan: was the brother of Kharyat Andesh Khan and was the governor of Kashmir during times of Ahamad Shah Durani.
(29) Afet Andesh Khan : was also son of Khairyat Andesh Khan. He was 2000 Manasabdar (General) as well as was appointed governor of Otawa during the last phase of Mogul rule.
(30) Hasham Mohammad Akbar Khan : Was Lahori Kamboj. He was the Chief justice of Delhi during the rule of Aurangzeb.
(31) Dr. Zialudin Kamboh, Ph D. Had been a great Moslem leader of modern times. Remained Vice Chancelor of Moslem University of Aligarh for long time.
(32) Hamad Ali Khan Kamboh : was a well known barrister of UP. He obtained Bar-at Law in 1885 from England and was one of the topmost legal expert of the State of Uttar Pardesh of his times. He wrote several books on Law in the early twentieth century.
(33) Hakim Anayat Hussain Mahravi : Was a famous historian. He wrote a book named Sil-Sila Alia, on Kamboj history at the start of 1119th c AD.
(34) Bahavudin Kamboh : Was another prestigious Moslem Kamboj in the court of Akbar. Akbar had deputed Bahavudin Kamboj to negotiate with rebel king of Kashmir Yusuf Khan Chaak (a Kamboj?).
(35) Yusuf Khan Chak : Another well known Kamboj of ‘Chaak’ sub-caste. Was the king of Kashmir during Akbar’s reign. But was a rebel and at odds with Akbar.
PRE-BUDDHIST OR EPIC PERIOD
Epic ramayan talks about kamboja kashatrya janapada as
The Kambojas did not participate in Ramayana war as they did in Mahabharata but we have references where Ramayana specifically talks about Kamboja Janapada or kingdom in couple of contexts. When the Mata Sita was kidnapped, we read Sugariva directing Shatabal to go and search here whereabouts in several countries including the Kamboja.
Amongs the countries or the Janapadas so mentioned we read the names of Mlechcha, Pulinda, Surasena, Parsathala Bharata, Madardesha, Kuru, Kamboja, Yavana etc. [Ramayana: 4-4-12 cf: Kishkanda, Bhashyakar Pandit Bhagwan Gautam, Parkashak Bholeshwara Pustak Bhandar, Mathura, p 441]. Also Kamboja kingdom is respectably mentioned in reference to its famous powerful breed of horses.(Ramayana: 1-6-22).
Kaambhojavishhaye jaatairbaahlikaishcha hayottamaih
vanaayujairnadiijaihshcha puurNaa harihayottamaiH || (Ramayana : I-6-22)
This abundantly proves that THE KAMBOJA KASHATRYAS WERE RULING FULL BLOOM IN THEIR KAMBOJA COUNTRY, DURING RAMAYANA PERIOD.
EPIC MAHABHARATA MENTIONS THE KAMBOJAS AS A POWERFUL KASHATRYA JANAPADAS:
KASHATRYA JANAPADAS: Anga, Vanga, Kalinga, Magadha, Jasi, Kosala, Vatsa, Garga, Karupa, Paundarak, Avanti, Dakshinatya,Parvartak, Dasherak, Kashmir, Ursa, Paishach, Mudgal, KAMBOJ, Vatdhaan, Chol, Pandya, Trigarta, Malava, Dardas, Khasha, Shaka, Yavana Kashatryas.(see Mahabharata 7/11/15-17).
KAMBOJA KASHATRYAS AND KARANA WAR :
Again during Karana Digvijay also, Karana had to fight with the KAASHATRYAS OF THE JANAPADAS like Kamboj, Avanti, Gandhar, Matsya, Panchal, Kasi, Kosala, Anga, Vanga , Vatsa, Kalinga and Ashmaka Kashatrya Tribes of Bharatavarsha (Mahabharata 8/8/18-20).
KAMBOJA/PARAMKAMBOJA KASHATRYAS AND WAR WITH ARJUNA:
In Arjuna Digvijay, Arjuna had to fight both with (1)KAMBOJA KASHATRYAS as well as (2)PARAM KAMBOJA KASHATRYAS:
Grahitava tu balam saram fhalgun: Pandunandan:/
Dardan saha KAMBOJAI rajyate pakshasini://
Pragutran disham ye che vasantaya tritatya dasayva:/
Nivsanti vanai ye che tansvaranjayat prabhu://
Lohan PARAM KAMBOJAN Nrishkanutranpi/
Sahtastan mahadaj vayajayat pakshasin:// (MBH 2I/27/23-25.
This clearly establishes that KAMBOJA KASHATRYAS were ruling in at least two seperate countries during the time of Mahabharata war. Powerful king Sudakshina Kamboja ruled in the kingdom of KAMBOJA where as another powerful Kamboja king Chander Varman Kamboj was ruling in the country of PARAM KAMBOJA (These Kamboj People, 1979, p p 63-64, K. S. Dardi)
KAMBOJA KASHATRYA REPUBLICS OF MAHABHARATA:
Besides these two specific Kamboja monarchies, Mahabharata also makes a separate mention of several KAMBOJA REPUBLICS in the same time frame of history:
Narayanaashach gopala: Kambojaana che ye ganahas://
Karanayan vijita: purava sangramai shursamata/(Mahabharata 7/91/39).
i.e. the Kamboja Republics which were noted for their valiancy and military power in war and which in the former times Karana had to fight with and reduce them….”
Panini is supposed to have lived around 500 BC. Panini mention 15 very PROMINENT KASHATRYA JANAPADAS including the Kamboja Janapada mentioned in his list of Janapadas. On the other hand, Buddhist texts mentions traditional 16 great Nations or Mahajanapadas and they also include the Kambojas & Gandharas as the two most PROMINENT MAHAJANAPADAS or GREAT COUNTRIES of the Uttaraptatha. Some of the Mahajanapadas mentioned in the Buddhist texts are not seen in the list of Panini’s list of Janapadas where as some new ones have taken their place in Panini. Regarding KAMBOJA & GANDHARA, we see them both in Buddhist list of Mahajanapadas and Panini’s list of Janapadas. Thus from Buddhist literature, we also find the Kambojas as one of the 16 most prominent RULING KASHATRYA FAMILIES (RAJPUT TRIBES) of Ancient India.[ref: Anguttara Nikaya, P.T.S., Vol-1. 213, Vol-4. 252, 256, 261].
Following Mahajanapada list is based on:
(A)Ancient India 1956 by Dr R. K. mukerjee, p 97
(B)Political History of Ancient India, 1996, Dr B. N. Mukerjee, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury,
page 85,133, 610)
(1)ANGA [east Bihar etc]
(2)MAGADHA [west Bihar etc]
(4)KOSALA [Avadh etc]
5)VAJJI [noth Bihar etc]
(7)CETI/CHEDI [Doab of Jamuna/Narmada etc]
(8)VANSA/VATSA [Allahabad etc]
(9)KURU [Thaneswer, Delhi, Merath]
(10)PANCHALA [Bareli/Badayun/Farukhabad etc]
(11)MACCHA/MATASYA [Jaipur etc]
(12)SURASENA [Mathura etc]
(13)ASSAKA [Godavari/Potna etc]
(14)AVANTI [Mehishmati etc]
(15)GANDHARA [Peshawer/Rawalpindi etc]
(16)KAMBOJA [Kashmir/Kafirstan/Kabol Valley]
Actually, modern scholars locate Kamboja/Param Kamboja in Trans-Hindukush regions. The Kamboja Republics (Kambojaana che ye ganaha)are located in Kashmir/Kabol/Kafirstan.
Ancient Kamboja was indeed a vast tribe and the name applied to general Indo-Iranian Aryan Speakers lying in the geographically, linguistically and culturally transitional regions between the Indo Aryans and Iranian Aryans groups.
See also Buddhist Jataka evidence below:
“Just as though, Visakha, one might have power, dominion and kingship over sixteen great countries abounding in the seven treasures — that is to say, Anga, Magadha, Kasi, Kosala, Vajji, Malla, Ceti, Vansa, Kure, Pancala, Maccha, Surasena, Assaka, Avanti, Gandhara and KAMBOJA, yet it is not worth a sixteenth part of the Uposatha undertaken with its eight practices. For what reason? Miserable is kingship over men compared with heavenly bliss. [Ref: Buddhist Jataka: Anguttara Nikaya VIII.43: Visakhuposatha Sutta].
For further ref: SEE ALSO: BUDDHIST JATAKA: [Anguttara Nikaya (P.T.S.) 1. 213; 4. 252, 256, 261].
Early India (Epic/Post Epic Period).
In India, the ancient kingdoms were called Mahajanapadas. There were several of them all over Northern India. Anga, Ashmak, Avanti, Chedi, Gandhar, Kashi, Kosala, Magadha ( in Bihar and later annexed part of Bangla and adjoining areas when it started expansion), Matsya, Shursen and Vatsa (today: Kasuambi in Bihar, King of Vatsa, Udayana was Buddha’s follower) were the major kingdoms. Some Mahajanapadas like Banga, Kamboj, Koliya, Kuru, Lichhavi, Moriya, Panchal, Shakya(Buddha’s family ruled here), and Vrijji were republican* states. The REPUBLICAN STATES were not ruled by kings but had assemblies of senior and responsible elders called ‘Gana-parishad’. (This is still visible in villages in India.) The Magadha (see map of Mauryan Empire), Kosala (see map of Mauryan Empire), Vatsya (Bihar), and Avanti (Ujjain in Madhya Pradesh) were the most notable kingdoms of ancient India.
”……….Kamboja adjoined Gandhara. Originally regarded as a land of Aryan speakers, Kamboja soon lost its important status, ostensibly because its people did not follow the sacred Brahmanic rites–a situation that was to occur extensively in the north as the result of the intermixing of peoples and cultures through migration and trade. Kamboja became a trading centre for horses imported from Central Asia…
ACCEPTANCE OF KAMBOH BY ENCYLOPEDIA BRITANNICA
Encylopedia Britannica accepts the existence of Kamboja Janapada since Vedic times.
“…..Buddhist writings and other sources from the beginning of this period mention 16 major states (mahajanapada) dominating the northern part of the subcontinent. A FEW OF THESE, SUCH AS GANDHARA, KAMBOJA, KURU-PANCHALA, MATSYA, KASI, AND KOSALA, continued from the earlier period and are mentioned in Vedic literature. The rest were new states, either freshly created from declining older ones or new areas coming into importance, such as Avanti, Asvaka, Surasena, Vatsa, Cedi, Malla, Vrjji, Magadha, and Anga. The mention of so many new states in the eastern Ganges Valley is attributable in part to the eastern focus of the sources and is partly the antecedent to the increasing preeminence of the eastern regions…………….(See map, India c. 500 BC.)”
(EXCERPTS TAKEN FROM: On Line Encylopedia Britannica)
This clearly establishes that the KAMBOJA JANAPADA was in existence since as early as the Rig Vedic Times. Or, put it another way, the Kamboja Kashatryas had been A RULING KASHATRYA TRIBE since as early as the Rig Vedic time.
The Atharvaveda and Yajurveda texts also strongly attest to the existence of Kamboja Kashatrya Janapada.
States Dr K. P. Jayswal: “Kambojas are known to Panini for he gives rules for the derivative to denote their king. This would indicate that Panini is referring to a Monarchy. But the special rule and exceptional form of the derivative raises a doubt as to weather the RAJA of the Kambojas was monarch or a consul. In the time of Kautalya, their constitution certainly did not admit of even a titular ‘king’……”(ref: Hindu Polity, A Constuttional History of India In Hindu Times, 1978, p 52, Dr Jayswal).
Perhaps during times of Panini, Kambojas were in the transition from Monarchy to pure Republican constitution.
But Dr Jayswal also writes:
“…Katyana, commenting on Panini, IV.1.168, says that the rule (of the ‘an’ partaya or affix) in making a derivative from the national designation of KASHATRYA will hold good only if the KASHATRYA is not a member of a SANGHA or REPUBLIC, for the rule is limited to the case of a Monarchy only” (ref: Hindu Polity, A Constuttional History of India In Hindu Times, 1978, p 29, Dr Jayswal).
According to Dr Romila Thapar, in ancient India, “The Sangha (or Republican) and Monarchical form of Governments were not very rigid and mutually exclusive and change from one form to another was not unheard of. Kamboja for example changed from Monarchy to Republican form of Governments (Ref: History of India Vol I, p 53 by Dr Romila Thapar).
“……During the earlier periods, the Kambojas were ruled by kings, but in Kautalya’s times, they had a non-monarchaical form or Sangha type of government. (History and Culture of India, Age of Imperial Kanauj, p 15, By Dr B. C. Law).
“……The Epic makes mention of their kings Chandravarmana and Sudakshana. In later times, however, the monarchy gave place to Sangha or Republican form of government. The Kautalya Arathashastra speaks of Kambojas as a ‘Varta-shaster-opajivin’ Sangha, that is to say a confederation of agriculturists, herdmen, traders and warriors. Corporations of Kambojas (Kambojana cha ye ganhas…MBH 7/91/39) are also mentioned in Mahabharata” (Political History of ancient India, 1996, p 135, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee).
Kamboja did not abruptly change from ‘Monarchy’ (kingly constitution) to Coroporation of warrior (kingless Republic constitution). It had a transitional stage where, at first, the Monarchy gave place to king-consul constitution (=Raja-sabad-opajivi) which later time hadgone further changes and became VARTA-SHASTER-OPAJIVI (NATION-IN-ARMS constution) at the time of Kautalya.
KAMBOJA JANAPADA IN YASAKA PERIOD (700 BC)
ONE OF THE PRE_EMINENT & MOST ANCIENT KASHATRYA TRIBES OF INDIA/AFGHANISTAN.
Between the Epic age (1200BC) and that age of Panini (500 BC), there lived another great Grammarian Yasaka (700 BC). He has commented upon the Kamboja language pecularities which has led numerous scholars to identify Kambojas as Iranian speakers rather than Indo Aryans.
Savtigartir Karama Kambojeseva Bhasyate Kamboja Kambal Bhoja, Kamniya Bhojava Kambalah Kamaniyo bhavati Vikaramasyaryesu bhavyante sava iti [Nirukuta 2/2]
This not only talks about Kamboja language pecularities of Kamboja Janapas, but it further also testifies to the luxurious style and opulence of the Kamboja of Yaskian period (see commentary of Acharya Durg, Swami Brahammuni Parivrajak Vidyamartand on Yasaka’s Nirukuta; Ancient Kamboja, People & the Country, 1981, p 255, 224, 225).
The scholars attribute Panini to around 700 BC. Panini has written a Grammer book…Nirukuta. As there is no possibility of interpolation in Grammer books as in other texts, scholars generally agree that the Yasaka’s Nirukuta is an uncorrupted text.
Thus, as attested to by Yasaka’s Nirukuta, we find the evidence of a flourishing Kamboja Janapada, around and before 700 BC, where the Kamboja Kashatrya kings had been ruling.
KAMBOJA KASSHATRYA JANAPADA IN VEDIC AGE. (1200-1500 BC)
The earliest mention of Kamboja occurs in the Vamsa Brahmana (1/18) of the Samveda where a sage Aaupamanyava Kamboja is mentioned in the line. Aupanmanya was his patric name i.r. being son of Upamanu he was called Aupanyava. He was called Kamboja because he was born in Kamboja Janapada or Tribe.(Ancient Kamboja, People & the Country,1981, p 202, Dr J. L Kamboj; cf History & Culture of Ancient India, Vedic Age, 259, Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar).
The Sage Upamanu mentioned in the Rig Veda 1-102,9) has been identified as the father of this Kamboja teacher (Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar, K. D. Sethna, Dr B. C. Law, Dr Zimmer, Dr Ludwig, Dr J. L. Kamboj etc etc).
Now as sage Upamanu belongs to Vedic era. This shows that Kamboja Kashatrya Janapasda had been in existence since at least as early as Vedic Age.
A STORY IN MAHABHARTA
BHISHMA HAD NERRATED THE FOLLOWING STORY OF SWORD INVENTION TO PANDU SON NAKULA WHICH STANDS RECORDED IN THE SHANTIPARAVA SECTION OF MAHABHARATA:
The world was all darkness and silence prevailed at first. Then Brahama was born. He created the five elements. Thence afterwards appeared space, time and mass which led to the creation of firmament, stars, sun, moon, planets, years, months, days, seasons etc. Then Brahama created sages Maricha, Atri and Rudri. And thence were born sea animals, land animals, and the birds by process of Andaj, Jeraj, Sethaj and utabhuja. Also were thus evolved Deva, Pritagana, Gandharava, Nymphs, Rakshasa.
After the above creations, Brahama created Dharama. When the sages, Acharyas, purohits and all devas, Rishis, munis, etc were engaged in the study of Vedas and spread of Dharma thence there arose cupidity, avarice, jealousies, anger, arrogance etc that led the uprightous kings (danavas) like Hirnakashpu, Hirnakasha, Virochana, Shambar etc to transgress the limits of Dharama and thus started commiting injustice & cruality on the devas & public. The devas approached Brahama and protested against the evil doings of the Danavas or Asura-like like kings.
As a consequence, God Brahama took several sages with him went to Himalaya to perform a great Yagna, the purpose of which was to creat a Asmim ‘shakti’ which would correct the evil doings of the uprightous rulers over their innocent subjects and set the rule of Dharma or justice.
The Divine Sword is stated to be created during this Yajna performed by god Brahma and a host of other celebrated Vedic sages somewhere on the mountain ranges of Himalaya. The age is stated to be the threshold of Krityuga/Duwaperyuga. During this prolonged Yajna performed on Himalayan somewhere, an extremely terrible,immense, fearfull, deadly, tall and slim Shakti…. ‘black-in-looks’ appeared out from the Yajna fire. The earth shook terribly; there was an upheavel in the ocean; the mountains started trembling; the giant trees simply started to fall. There was an extreme terror & fear every where……….. This terrible, fearful immense, slim & tall Shakti was none other than the DIVINE SWORD!!! The purpose of the ‘Sword creation’ was to protect the ‘Good’ from the ‘Evil’, the ‘Devas’ from the excesses of ‘Danvas’ the ‘Innocents’ from the ‘Wickeds’.
“Thus appeared the Divine Sword, the Devi Kharag….The Cruel, The Fearful, Powerful, Fiery, Unassailable, Affording Wealth, Giving Victory, and the Source of Maintaining Dharma…………….”
This revolutionary ‘creation’ simply ushered in a terrible revolution in human history. The same kind of revolutions had already occurred earlier with the invention of “FIRE” and then that of the “WHEEL”.
God Brahma, was the first to wield the Divine Sword ferociously but righteously and he had eliminated all the Evils and the Danvas with it. Brahma gave the Sword to god Mahadeva to protect the ‘Innocents’ and destroy the forces of Evil. Mahadeva used it righteously, destroyed the danvas and gave it further onwards to god Vishnu, who gave to Maricha, Maricha gave it to Braman Rishis, the Brahman Rishis, in turn, gave the sword to god god Indra, god Indra gave it to Lokepala, who in turn gave it to Suryaputra Manu. From Suryaputra Manu it passed on to king Kushapa, king Kushapa passed it on to king Ishvaku, who passed it on to king Prurva. King Pruva gave it to Ayu, Ayu to Nahuchha, Nahuchha to Yayati, Yayati to Puru, Puru to Amurtarya, Amurtarya to Bhumyshya, Bhumishya to king Bharata, king Bharta to Alvila from whom it was passed on to warrior king Dhundhumar, a great king of Ayudhya. By this way of inheritance, the Divine Sword finally passed on to king of the Kambojas.
Dhundhumarach Kambojo Muchukundastoalbhayat:
Muchukundan Marutashach Marutadpi Rayat (see Mahabharata 12/166/77)
King of Kambojas wielded it righteously and then passed it on to king Muchukunda, from whom it went to king Maruta, who in turn, passed it on to king Rayata, Rayata to king Yuvanashaya, Yuvanshaya to king Raghu, king Raghu to king Hrinashshava, king Hrinashaya to Chhunak, Chhunak passed it on to righteous king Uchhinar, who passed it on to king Yaduvamsi Bhoja, king Bhoja gave it to king Sivi, king Sivi passed it on toking Ashtaka, Ashtaka passed it on to Prishdachhava, who passed it on to great Drona Acharya, from whom it went on to Kripacharya, Kripacharya finally passed it to you Nakula……….
Dr Pargiter has placed this king Dhundhumar or Kuvalashava at 12th generation down Manu. This shows that this story of Divine Sword is extremely old and goes back to remote antiquity.
The sword is an undoubtedly symbol of POWER & KASHATRYAHOOD. The fact that a king of Kambojas was given this prized sword apparently for his display of chivalary and heroism in the battle field indisputably establishes that the ancient Kambojas were indeed a FAMED WELL-RECOGNIZED KASHATRYA TRIBE. Hence this traditional legend again classes the Kambojas into ‘KASHATRYAS’ or warrior classification.
Some Historians have stated that KAMBOJA TRIBE and KAMBOJA NATION of the later centuries took their name from this GREAT KAMBOJA WARRIOR KING.
OILY IRON OF THE KAMBOJA COUNTRY & THE KAMBOJA SWORD:
“The best sword measured fifty inches. They were usually made of Pindara iron found in the Jangala country, black iron in the Anupa, white iron in the Sataharana, gold colored in the Kalinga, OILY IRON IN THE KAMBOJA, blue-colored in Gujarat, grey-colored in the Maharashtra and reddish white in Karnataka. The aSi si also known as Nistrimsa, Visamana, Khadga, Tiksnadhara, Durasada, Srigarbha, Vijaya and Dharmamula, meaning respectively cruel, fearful, powerful, fiery, unassailable, affording wealth, giving victory, and the source of maintaining dharma. And these are generally the characteristics of a sword.
The Powerful Kamboja Sword from Kamboja Oily Iron and the Famed Kamboja Horses had immensely helped the ancient Kamboja Kashatryas to create and maintain their great kingdoms for centuries and centuries.
A PRE-EMINENT AND MOST ANCIENT KASHATRYA TRIBE SINCE ANCIENT TIMES
SEE SOME DOCUMENTED EVIDENCE BELOW:
(1)Foremost and most authentic PROOF OF KAMBOJA KASHATRYAHOOD comes ancient Grammarian Panini ( 500BC).
Panini has defined 15 POWERFUL KASHATRYA JANAPADAS or KINGDOMS in his Sutra IV.1.168-175 (Ashtadhyai):
JANAPADAT-SABADAT KASHATRYADan: [ IV.1.168, Panini Ashtadhyai].
which were governed by monarchical constitution (Ekrajat=monarchies)
and has SPECIFICALLY INCLUDED KAMBOJA and 14 other pre-Paninian kingdoms as Monarchies (i.e. EKARAJAT) as contrasted to Republic (SANGHA) form of governments:
i.e. KASHATRYAD-EKARAJAT, SANGHA PRATISHEDHARTHAM [IV.1.168.1, Panini Ashtadhyai).
The 16 powerful Kashatrya kingdoms listed are the following:
Kamboja, Salveya, Gandhari, Magadha, Kalinga, Suramasa, Kosala, Ajada, Kuru, Salva, Pratyagratha, Kalakuta, Asmaka, Avanti & Kunti.
(2)ANOTHER POWERFUL PROOF OF KAMBOJA KASHATRYAHOOD COMES FROM STORY OF DIVINE SWORD OF MAHABHARATA(Refer to Mahabharata, Shantiparava Section: 12/166/64-80):
This legend of “Divine Sword” appears in Santi Parva section of Mahabharata. Bhishama stood mortally wounded by Arjuna and lay pierced with deadly arrows, in the battlefield, waiting death. Pandava son Nakula, who was the most powerful & skillful wielder of Sword in the battlefied approached Bishama and put him the following question:
“Hey Pitama, in my opinion, the Sword is the best of all weapons a warrior can safely rely. In case all other war weapons/equipment like Dhanush (Bow), Chariot etc having been damaged and the horse having killed, the sword comes in handy as his last resort for his personal protection. A skilful warrior armed with sword has the immense capability to keep at bay or outdo his enemy warrior armed with weapons like Mace, chariot & shakti etc. Pitamah I have a great curiosity to know as to who, when and under what circumstances had invented the Sword, and further who was its first Acharya.
Kambojas entering India during 2nd BC
Dr Buddha Parkash Observations:
“During 2nd c BC, along with Saka tribes, the Kambojas had also enterd India and spread into whole of north-west India including Punjab & UP etc. Mahabharata refers to Kambojas and Yavanas having conqureed Mathura (ref: MBH 12/102/5). Kambojas also find mention in Mathura Lion capitol Inscriptions of Saka Kasatrapa Rajuvala. The Kambohs are the descendents of the ancient Kambojas.” (ref: India and the World, p 154, Dr Buddha Parkash, Ancient Kamboja, People And the Country, pp 296-306, Dr J. L. Kamboj, These Kamboj People, 1979, p 144, K. S. Dardi).
We have also evidence from Buddhist Mudrakshas drama where Kambojas, Sakas, Paedas, Pahlavas, Yavanas etc entered army of Chander Gupta Maurya which had proceeded to Magadha and dethroned the king and installed Chander Gupta Maurya on Magdhan throne.
Asti tava Shaka-Yavana-Kirata-Kamboja-Parsika-Bahlika parbhutibhi:
Chankyamatipragrahittaishach Chander Gupt Parvateshvar
Samantad uprudham Kusumpuram
Dr A. D. Pusalkar & Dr R. C. Majumdar States: “The Mudrarakshasa Play as well as the Jain works Parisishtaparvan refers to Chandergupta’s alliance with Himalayan king Parvatka. The Himalyan alliance gave to Chander Gupta a composite army made up of Yavanas, Kambojas, Sakas, Kiratas, Parasikas and Bahlikas as stated in the Mudrarakashasa” ( History and Culture of Indian People, Age of Imperial Kanauj, p 57).
Commenting on this, Dr J. L. Kamboj states that under Mauryas, the Kambojas, Sakas, Yavanas etc had an excellent opportunity to enter the army and move into & permanently settle in interior India.
These Kambojas, Sakas, Pardas, Pahlavas etc had embraced Hinduism in due course of time and therefore were inevitably absorbed in the Hinbdu society.
Also compare: “The Sakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Pahlavas, Pardas were foreign tribes from west but they were evidently absorbed among the Kashatryas.
” ( History and Culture of Indian People, The Vedic Age, p 313-314, Dr R. C Majumdar, Dr A. D. pusalkar, Dr K. D. munshi ).
The Kambojas had always been a KASHATRYA or RAJANYA/RAJPUT tribe. There are numerous instances which shows that for long long time, the Kambojas have been a Kashatrya/ Rajput tribe….i.e. a tribe of ruling Kashatryas. In the olden times, their kings & republican chiefs were also known as RAJANS and the Kambojas as RAJANYAS as Panini has documented. But after 8th c AD, title RAJNYA was replaced by term RAJPUT but with similar connotations.
There is documented evidence available which shows that the Kamboja Kashatryas/Rajputs have been ruling in their principalities located in south-west India as well as in Bengal as late as 16th c AD which evidence comes to us from the Inscriptions and hence is considered indisputable.
Kamboja people are the only Vedic Kashatrya people amongst the numerous Kashatrya tribes participating in the great Mahabharata war who have especially been glorified in Mahabharata Epic as the Vedic scholars (Kritvidiashach), besides being applausively designated as fiercest & swiftest fighters, deadly warriors, wondrously armed braves, war-intoxcated, Death personified, dreadful as YAMA…the God of Death, elephants gone wild/mad, as deadly as cobras, expert archers, expert cavaliers and expert Mal-Yudh-Kushlah (expert duelists or wrestlers) etc etc (vide Mahabharta Paravas, 7/23/42-44, 7/112/43-44, 7/112/48-52, 12/101/5 etc etc). Also please refer to ‘Kamboj Veeron Ki Kahani, Mahabharat Ki Zabani’ by Dr J. Lal Kamboj as appeared in a fortnightly magazine Kamboj Samachar, published in 1975-77 from New Delhi, Kamboja People and the Country 1979, by Dr. J. Lal Kamboj, Ph. D, D. Lit, Delhi University, These Kamboj People 1979 by K. S. Dardi etc etc).
In the entire ancient world history, the honor of participating, fighting and then attaining supreme mass martyrdom in the active and hot battle field, and that too, against, Alexandra the Great, one of the greatest military generals the world has ever produced, goes only and only to the heroic Kamboja queen Kripya and the brave Kamboja women of the famous Assakenian Kamboja clan. They have the supreme honor of being martyred, not in a direct and straight fighting, but only through demeaning and unashamed treachery resorted to by none other than ‘Alexander the Great’ himself, who contemptuously threw to winds all terms of the agreement he had reached with the Assakenian Kambojas and had attacked the Kamboja soldiery from their rear, during the dead of night, when they were off-guard and unprepared and were leaving the Massaga fortress along with their families, per terms of the agreement they had reached with Alexandra. Alexandra’s own historians have strongly condemned this dastardly and non-heroic act of Alexandra, stating that “by violating the peace treaty with the Assakenians (Kambojas), Alexandra has put on an indelible and infamous blot on his heroic name” (Ref: McCrindle in Plutarch, p 306).
Commenting on the final and conclusive battle fought at Massaka, between the Assakenian Kambojas and the Alexandrian forces, writes thus an Alexandra’s own contemporary and famous historian, Diodoros Siculus: “…..Assakenian (Assakenois) Kamboja women were pouncing upon the fighting Greek soldiers with an elemental fury, (like ferocious lionesses?), and grappling with them and snatching away their swords, spears and shields…………………………..While the Assakenian (Kamboja) soldiers were crossing swords with the enemy, their wives were covering their fighting husbands with the shields they had snatched from the Macedonian army………………. And still other Kamboja women were picking up arms of those who had fallen or were wounded or cut …..and were fighting side by side with their husbands in the active field………. The Assakenois (Kambojas), who had fought valiantly along with their women, could not this time, frustrate the well trained and numerous army of Alexandra and thus met with a glorious death which they preferred to lives of disgrace….”. (Ref: Diodoros Siculus in Macrindle p 270). Another glorious Kamboja heroine who had earlier fought valiantly against yet another greatest and proudest general of his times, king Cyrus II, the Great, who founded the great Achaemenian Kamboja empire (and who was a Kambojian himself), was the Assakenian queen Tummeya Kamboj (Tumaris of Greek historian, Herodotus), who after having lost her son (king of Assakenois) in the battle against this Persian Kambojian king, took to arms herself, fought valiantly and had Cyrus II killed in the fiercest and hottest battle of Massaga. The queen Tummeya or Tumaris ( from whom, the Tumme clan of the modern Kambojas took its family name, per K. S. Dardi, vide These Kamboj People 1979 page 88) is then reported to have herself cut Cyrus’s head from his dead body and then grabbing it from his hair, said in a wailful and heroic avengeful crying tone: “Cyrus I give you the fill of your blood!” This evidence comes to us from none other than the famous classical historian Herodotus (Ref: Classical writings of the Greek historian Herodotus; Kamboja People and the Country 1979 by Dr J. L Kamboj; These Kamboj People 1979 by K. S. Dardi etc). We, all Indians, proudly salute to the splendid glory of our valiant and martyred Kamboja mothers and sisters of the olden era, of whose, we are the proud descendents. (for complete story, please turn to ‘Alexandra of Macedonia and Kamboja People’ at page 38 of this article).
These Kamboja Aryan people, the famous frontier highlanders of the by-gone era, had contributed greatly to the spread of Aryan culture in Ceylon, Cambodia and in ancient India & Iran.
ONE OF THE MOST ANCIENT KASHATRYS/RAJPUT TRIBES OF INDIA/AFGHANISTAN .
Term RAJPUT has no reference to race or a tribe which means all Rajputs are not from common descent or common blood relationship. They indeed have diverse origin, which shows they descended from different ethnic/racial stocks. The term literally denotes a clan or or a tribe of warlike habits, the members of which claimed aristocratic rank. It was their warlike occupation coupled with their ruling status that gave them distinctive common feature and made the Brahmans recognize them as Kashatryas” (Dr K J. Das).
The so-called Rajput community comprises diverse clans. They were indeed an occupational people with war and government as their chief business. The word caught the fancy of time in 8th c AD. Some writers state that term RAJPUT is the continuation of the Panian term RAJANYA which term was applied to kings of the Monarchies, the descendents of the Kashatryas as well as to the chiefs of Republican clans of pre-christian era. Panini has stated that the kings who ruled over the Janapadas were KASHATRYAS and the same word denoted both descendents (citizens) of the KASHATRYAS i.e RAJANYAS and their king as it specifically applied to 15 main ancient Kashatryas tribes during the times of Panini i.e Kuru, Panchala, Kamboja, Gandhari, Kalinga, Magadha, Suramasa, Angas, Kunti, Asmaka, Salva, Pratyagratha, Kalakuta, Ajada, Kosala. (PANIAN KASHATRYAS)
See Panian evidence below:
KASHATRYA-sammana-sabadat janapadat tasya RAJANYA-PATYAVATA
[ IV.1.168.3, Panisni Ashtadhya].
Rajnyas here apparently equals to the medieval term RAJPUT.
The vast community of Rajputs (in modern context) descended mainly from the following three sources according to many scholars”.
• Foreign Invaders like Sakas, Kambojas (Iranian affinities), Yavanas, Pahlavas Kushanas, Yuches and Hunas from whom are stated to emerge Parmar, Chohan, Pratihar and Solanki/Chalukya…the four Agnukula clans of the Rajput community.
• The relics of Kashatrya population of Ancient Indo-Aryans …we have ancient traditional Kashatrya clans like Madras, Kurus, Panchalas, Kosalas, Vedic Kambojas, Anga, Vanga… etc.
• The Aboriginal tribes like Gondas, Bharas, Kharwars from whom emerged Chandels, Rathors, Gaharwars, Rahsterkutas etc.
Also see V. A. Smith:
V. A. Smith believes that the Rajputs were a mixed race. Some of the Rajput clans were descendents of foreigners like Hunas, Sakas & Kushanas etc and other belonginging to the old Kashatrya tribes. In the beginning, these two groups were opposed to each other but in the course of time they got mixed up with each other. The Kashatryas or Rajputs group of castes at present essentially are an occupational group composed of all clans, following the Hinduised rituals, who actually undertook the work of government; consequently, people of most of the great Rajput clans now in existence inspite of their hoary pedugrees are descended from foreign immigrants or from Indiginous races such as old Kashatryas as also aboriginal castes such as Gonds, Bhars etc….
There are numerous references to Kambojas having entered India as frequent invaders as well as merceneray recruits before 2nd c BC. Also in mass migration after 2nd c AD when the Kambojas, Sakas and Pahlavas etc hand entered India in massive numbers from central Asia/Afganistan pushed out by the great Yuchihs***.
About the Kambojas, having entered India in the remote past and standing fully integrated into Indian society, see what Dr P. C. Bagchi has observes:
“The Kambojas were a Nomadic tribe living beyond Himalayans in Central Asia. One of their sections had entered India in the remote past, but they had been fully integrated and admixed with local population so that it is not possible to differentiate them apart now…………………………” (India & Central Asia, p 117, Dr P. C. Bagchi).
The Kambojas Dr P. C. Bagchi talks about are those Kambojas which have figured as following the Vedic Aryan culture in Epic times. They had entered India during/earlier than epic war and now stands fully integrated into the Indian society.
Where Kamboh Live
The Kamboja people, where-ever they went, gave their own name to the places or the areas they occupied or colonized… Their descendents are found in the modern Kambohs of the Northern India. “. (Ref: The Cultural Heritage of India Vol II, p 512 by Dr. C. P. Ramaswami Aiyer Vice Chancelor, Banars Hindu University, UP, India).
Kamboja people are a very ancient and historical people belonging to the famous Indo-Aryan or better still, to the Indo-Iranian Aryan race (Dr Keith, Dr McDonnell: in Vedic Index, Dr Donald N. Wilber: Afghanistan, its People, its Culture, its Society etc etc), now living quite numerously in the plains of East and West Panjab, Haryana and U. P parts of India, as well as around the mountains of Hindukush, northern-eastern parts of Afghanistan, including its Badakshan province, and modern Tajikstan across the Amu Darya (Oxus river) as well as in southern-eastern parts of Iran.
The modern Taijk people of Tajikstan and Afghanistan are the modern descendents of the ancient Kambojas (ref: Dr Jai Chander Vidyalankar, Dr Moti Chander, Dr Suniti Kumar Chaterjee, Ph.D, D.Lit, Dr Radha Krishnan, 2 nd Presdent of India etc etc).
And these Tajiks of Ghur, Afghanistan, even provided the Ghurid dynasty of Delhi in the thirtienth century AD. In the fortieth century, another Tajik dynasty, the Karts, established themselves for a brief period in Herat and attained almost a virtual independence (1332-1370) from the Mongols (Ref: Afghanistan, its People, its Culture, its Society 1964, page14, 44 by Donald N. Wilber ). The Gouri as well as the Abdali tribes of Afghanistan (from this Abdali tribe sprang the famed military general Ahmad Shah Abdali alias Ahmad Shah Durani) are the modern representatives of the ancient Gouraens Kambojas of Panjkora/Konar valley and the ancient Heytali, Heftali, Zabuli or Abdali clan of the Param Kambojas of the trans-Oxian region respectively. Possibly, the modern Turana clan of the Gilzai Afghans and Turna clan of the Kambojas of east/west Panjab have a common lineage as has been specifically pointed out by K. S. Dardi (These Kamboj People 1979 page 169-174).
The Turana tribe of Afghans and Turna clan of the Panjabi Kambojas are a possible offshoot from king Turman or Torman of Param Kamboja whose clan had invaded Afghanistan from across the Oxus and had settled around Gazni around 4/5 th century A.D. This same region later came to be called Zabulstan or Abdal and the people were called Abdal or Abdali, Heftalis or Heytalis. These people also had raided interiror India around 5 th century A.D. and their king Turman (also called Turana: ref: ‘Studies in Asian History’ page 38 by Dr Ahmad Ali Kohzad, Director, History Deptt, Afghanistan) and his successor king Mehrokole (from whose name possibly started the Mehroke gotra of the 52 division of the modrern Kambojas. Also ref to These Kamboj People 1979 by K. S. Dardi page 174) had established a powerful empire in northern and central India. Later, their descendents continued to rule in Zabulstan till approximately 870 AD when their rule was terminated by Yakub Bin Leh, founder of the Safard Vamsa of Iran. T
The Aspins of Chitral, the Mashkuns of Gilgit, the Isaps, Asaps, Pachais or Yusufzais Pashtuns living across north-west of river Sindh, as also the turbulent Afridis of the historical Khyber pass (mentioned in classical writings of the Greek historian Arrian, Diodoros, Curtius as the Aprytae or Afrikes or Erixes: Dr Fauja Singh, Dr L. M. Joshi, Dr J. L. Kamboj, K. S. Dardi etc etc) are the modern descendents of the famous ancient Ashvaka/Asva Kambojas of Sanskrit and Pali texts or Assakenois/Aspasios Kambojas of the classical writings of the Greeks. The Asvas/Ashvakas of Sanskrit and Pali texts and Aspasios and Assakenois people of the classical writings, according to medern historians, were the (Vedic Indian) Kamboja people living in the Paropamisadea region, lying to the south/east of Hindukush (Ref: Dr E. Lammotte, Dr K. P. Jayaswal, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukherjee, Dr Buddha Parkash, Dr L. M. Joshi, Dr Fauja Singh, Dr McCrindle, Dr J. L. Kamboj, Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar, K. S. Dardi, Dr Romila Thapar etc etc
The Afrikes tribe was an offshoot of the famed Assakenois or Ashvaka tribe (Ref Dr H. C. Raychaudhry, The Political History of Ancient India, 1996 page 217). The brave Ashvak Kambojas of Kunar/Swat valleys and their valiant women, had given toughest fights to Alexandrian forces and had fought the Macedonian army tooth and nail at Massaga (modern Mashkine of N.W.F.P of Pakistan). “………..They (Assakenia Kambojas) finally met with glorious death which they preferred to lives of disgrace.”, says Greek historian Diodoros Siculus (ref: Diodoros in McCrindle page 270).
The modern fiercest, most intractable, warlike and most dreaded kafir tribes (modern Nuristanis) variously called as Kamoz, Kamtoz, Kaum,Kams, Kom, Caum, Camoje, Camojee tribes etc (ref: Ref: Elphinstone, An account of the kingdom of Cabol, Vol II, page 375-377; Political History of Ancient India 1996, page 133 by Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee, Sidhant Kaumdei Arathparkashika 1966, page 20-22 by Acharya Radha Raman Pandey,
The Kafirs of the Hindukush 1895 by Sir George Scott Robertson etc) of Kamdesh of Bashgul, Kati or Katir (ancient Katawers) valleys of modern Nuristan province of Afganistan and N.W.F. Province of Pakistan are the undoubted descendents of the ancient Kambojas who had been living since ancient times in the so called Kapisha region which then had comprised Begram, Kaubol and the adjoining areas of Afghanistan (Ref: The Greeks in Bacteria and India 1966 p 170, 461, by Dr W. W. Tarn).
A mixed version of Aryo-Mongol Kamboja people are the Khmers of the modern Cambodia or Kampuchea or Kambujia (the name Kampuchea is derived from Kambuja or Kamboja. The Persian inscriptions relating to the Achemenian Kamboja kings use the word Kambujia which is the Iranian equivalent of Sanskrit Kamboja/Kambuja/Kambujana and the Greek Cambysis/Kambysis).
We can also find some traces of Kamboja blood coursing through the veins of some population of Sri Lanka (Kaboja, Kamboja per Sinhalese epigraphic inscriptions), Tibetat, Assam, Malaysia, Indonesia, south-west parts of China comprising the famous Pamirs as well as in Vietnam, where-in the ancient Kamboja people went, colonized, held sway and finally got mixed with the local population. Brama Purana also makes a mention of the presence of Kambojas in Assam and Tamralipiti regions. Per Paag-Saam-Jone-Jang… a Tibetan Religious Book, the geographical region of northern-eastern India between Bengal and Brahma was also called Kampotse in early middle age. Dr Fouche is of the opinion that Tibet was the Ancient Kamboja and Tibetan Language was the ancient Kamboja language. Dr R. P. Chanda and Dr S.K Chatterjee agree with Dr Fouche. But Dr P. C. Bagchi says that Kambojas were a nomadic tribe living on the northern of Himalya in the Central Asia, from where, one of their section occupied the eastern Tibet and another one migrated to Mekong Valley of Indo-China (Cambodia). According Dr. P. C. Bagchi, the ancient Kumud Davipa (as mentioned in Sanskrit Text Vayu Purana) comprising the Sogdiana and Bukhara regions of Central Asia had been a part of the Ancient Kamboja.
The descendents of ancient Kamboja people are now scattered widely but sparsely in Indian subcontinent, Iran, Afghanistan and Indo-china etc. They are found as Hindus, Moslems, Sikhs, Jains, Parsis, Buddhists or even Christians by religion. They are chiefly engaged in agriculture, animal husbandry, business and services for their living. But only some of their descendents living in UP, Haryana, East and West Panjab have preserved their old Kamboja name till date. Also the turbulent and warlike earstwhile Kafir tribes………..the turbulent and rebellious modern Nuristanis of Nuristan Province of Afghanistan and the N.W.F.P of Pakistan have also retained their ancient Kamboja name in the modern form as Kam or Kaam, Kom, Camojee, Camoje, Kamoz, Kamtoz etc ((Ref: Elphinstone, An account of the kingdom of Cabol, Vol II, page 375-377; Political History of Ancient India 1996, page 133 by Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee, Sidhant Kaumdei Arathparkashika 1966, page 20-22 by Acharya Radha Raman Pandey, The Kafirs of the Hindukush 1895 by Sir George Scott Robertson etc).
The play of time, space and local circumstances have led rest of the Kamboja descendents to change or drop their Kamboja indentity in rest of the geographical areas they had once colonized and ruled. But still, as we will see, numerous relics or remanents of their tribal name, their culture and their language are abundantly found in the countries or places they had settled in and ruled in the olden times.
Surprisingly, and by twists of times and history, these once an extremely famous and powerful warlike and scholarly class of royal and proud Indo-Iranian Aryan people of ancient India and Iran, by all accounts and reckonings, are now living as a little known people these times! And it is extremely painful to see them in their present state of degeneration and degradation. These famous Vedic and Avestan Aryan people of the bygone era once ruled supreme in southwest Asia. They dictated terms for sure, and talked and acted from positions of strengths as is amply and repeatedly evidenced from numerous and copious ancient literatures and epigraphic inscriptions of India, Persia, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, China and classical writings Sanskrit and of Greek historians etc.
According to authentic and dedicated researches of Dr J. Lal Kamboj of Delhi University, “undoubtedly, every inch of the Afghanistan soil stands trampled under the hooves of the world famous Kamboja horses of the war expert Kamboja cavalry”.
Furthermore, these Kamboja people have also been known in history as Ashav-Yudh_Kushlah (expert cavalary soldiers) in ancient Sanskrit and Pali religious literature. (Ref: Hindu Polity, A Constitutional History of India, Vol I & II by Dr K. P. Jayaswal). Their sub-clans were found as Asvakas/Asvakan, and Asvas/Asvayan of the Sanskrit and Pali texts and Assakenois and Aspasios of the classical Greek writings. “The people whom the Kamboja people helped and supported in their warfares used to be extremely proud of their friendship with these war-loving Kamboja people”.(Also Ref to: These Kamboj People 1979 by K. S. Dardi page 9. Also vide Mahabharata 7 parava,). These warlike people (whom Dr Govind Krishan Pilley has rightly styled as the war loving Kambojas, vide his Traditional History of India, page 300; also refer to Mahabharta 7/119/13-15) had helped in establishing and maintaining some of the famous empires in ancient world history. They were once a royal and scholarly class of people ruling in Kamboja, Param Kamboja, and later in Iran, Tibet, Cambodia, and Sri Lanka etc etc at different times in history, besides ruling in eastern and northern Afghanistan as Kamboja Mahajanapadans and later as numerous Kamboja hyparchs/kinglets/republicans in a dozen small territories in southern-eastern parts of the Hindukush mountain range such as Qandhar, Gazni, Kabol, Kapisa, Alishang valley, Kunar valley, Panjkora valley, Swat & Buner valleys, Ora, Bazira, Hazara, Punch, Abhisar/Rajaori, Srinagar etc. Numerous times, they have subjugated and ruled over various interior parts of India like Mathura, Ayudhya, Gujrat, Bengal/Bihar/Orisa, (Gaur Desha) etc as is witnessed by ancient and medieval Indian Sanskrit and Pali literature, Nepalese and Tibetean religious chronicles as well as various epigraphic inscriptions in Khroshti, Aramaic and Sanskrit language.(Also please ref to Kambojas in Bengal by Dr Jia Lal: Vishal Kamboj, June 1999). They have left their indelible traces and footprints in the Kamaon hills of the Himalyan foothill spurs, where they once held their own and undoubtedly gave their own name to it. Over the centuries, the standard Sanskrit name Kamboja has, as expected, changed to its present Prikritized form (Kamaon), like the same Kamboja changed to modern Kamboh, Kambo, Kabo, Kammo, Kamo etc in the plains of India like Panjab, Haryana & UP; and to modern Kaam, Kammah, Caumoh, Camojee/Camoj/Camoz/Kamoz etc in eastern parts of Afghanistan.
Famous historian Dr Benjamin Walker, while referring to the Kamboja people’s rule in Bengal and Bihar (Gauddesha), states that the ancient Kambojas who were the neighbors of Gandharahs had migrated to Bengal from north-western India along the foothills of Himalayan, and accordingly, according this historian, we can find their mention in the Tibetan and Nepalese religious and political chronicles. He further says that Kambojas’ descendents are still found in modern Bengal (Ref: Hindu World Vol I, P 510 by Dr. Benjamin Walker). In this case please also ref to ‘Some Kashatrya Tribes of ancient India’ by Dr B. C. Law, who quotes Dr R. P. Chandra and arrives at the same conclusions and information about the Kambojas of Bengal. Also please ref to Early History of India by Dr V. A. Smith. Several Epigraphic inscriptions relating to Kamboja people have also been located as far as Sri Lanka which is strong indication that these people had also reached as far as Sri Lanka and had established their kingdom in this island (for full details please refere to Kamboja People and the Country 1979 by Dr J. Lal Kamboj of Delhi University)..
KAMBOH SUB CASTS
52+84 Sub-caste (Gotras)
Ajpal, Abdal, Angiar/Angyar, Barar, Tawan, Bhojrath, Baan, Banvait, Bhaun, Banain, Pathaan, Patnayak, Bassi, Bajney, Baghi, Pandu, Pandhu, Pandhi, Patanrai, Vinaiyak, Pahan, Thind, Dhanju/ Dhannu, Thinju, Tanda/Tandna, Tumme/Tummey/Tumma, Trikha/Trakha, Turana,/Turna/Torna, Jossan/Josan, Joiya, Jaiya, Batt/Bhatt/Bhatti, Juj/Judge, Jammu, Jaura/Jaure, Jatmal,Jakhpal, Chandana, Chandi, Chuni, Channi, Chanan, Chandok, Chaak, Chatrath, Dotey/Dote, Dhat , Dhote, or Dhody, Ratanpal, Sandhey/Sindhi, Syami/Sama, Soi, Ashoke, Sawan, Asavan, Sunehar, Sandher/ Sandheyer/ Sandheer, Padaya, Dahraal, Baadbaan, Laitamb, Laihang, Langhaiyd/ Langherh, Karanpal, Kosal/Koshal, Khatey/Khitey, Koiyer/Koyer/Koir/Kaiyer, Kaura, Landey/Landei, Bhokney/Bhukney, Momi. Moti/Muti, Mehroke/Mahroke, Magoo, Magh/Maagh/Maaghi, Nagpal, Nagra, Nandan , Handa, Angotra, Angotey, Bargote, Bihaar/Bihaad, Bahman/Baman, Bahiman, Bastorh/Bastode, Barham, Banjahl, Bagbaan/Bagyaan, Bangar/Bangarh, Amber/Ambarey, Pahdey/Padiyay, Fokney, Taparia, Taper/Taped, Taggar/Taggal, Dhingrey/ Thengrey, Topchi, Jaangla, Jammaan, Jasmaan, Jhand, Jhaam, Karmi, Cheedvey, Chaufaal, Chichaar, Chaamadi, Chirhya, C himnee/Chimney, China/Cheena, Chchachhoti/Chchachhot, Chchanan, Thatta/Thattey, Dode/ Dodey, Daang/Daangey, Dhaara/Dhaarey, Dhill/Dhilan, Dehar, Dhavarha/ Dhavada, Dotaana/Dutaana, Dahai/Dahatai, Dhabar/Dhavar, Dolyaan, Dhattey/Dhadey, Dehl/Dehal/Dhehal, Dongey, Dehggal, Duggal, Sarkaura/ Sarkorha/Sarkoda, Soni, Salehar/Salehari, Soki/Sokhi, Suhaag/Suhaagey, Sainik, Sainapati, Sarang, Momsarang, Sandal/Sandali, Kalra, Kals/Kalsi, KailaashKailaas, Gagarh/Gagad, Gandhi, Gandher, Gainda/Gaynda, Khokhar, Gogan/Gugan, Gossa, Gosal/Gosila, Gore/Goure/Gaure, Gillavey, Gayal, Goyal, Gadrhia, Kirgill/Kargill, Kamar/Kamare, Asoi, Kamal, Khanda, Latambey, Ghaseeta, Lahinga, Langher, Makkar/Makkad, Kukkar/Kokkar, Kakkar, Mall, Mailley, Nirmall, Machchli, Maheyas, Multani, Nepal/ Naipal/Naipaul, Nighamber, Nambher, Nuri/Noori, Nauhrya, Naihrya/Naihru, Hareyas, Harsa, Nibber, Varman, Changara, Rudri/Ludri, Drahmaan, Larmotey/Larmote, Bhujjang/ Bhujangi, Sabada/Saparha/Sapra, Satta, Lakhi, Laihang/Laihinga/Laihinda, Laatey/Laat, Lehiry/Laihry, Jaada/Jaarha, Mand/ Manda/Mandey, Khitey / Khatey, Khanda/Khinda, Lora/Lorey/Lori .
Kamboh is frequently used as surname or last name by Muslim Kambojs, currently living in Pakistan.
Origin of word
The word Kamboh is a derived from the combination of two terms Kai & Amboh. Amboh means ‘a following’ ‘a family’, or ‘large gathering’. Kai was a royal dynasty of Persiantraditions. Thus Kai plus Amboh =Kaimboh=Kamboh means the royal family of Kai kings. Thus the Kambohs claim to have descended from the kings of line Kais of the Ancient Persia. .
According to Dr Carry, Kai was a king of Persia who was connected with the royal Kai dynasty which ruled Persia before Dara (Darayvaush or Darius). The royal title Kai frequently finds mention in the Hindu traditions also. This Kai was one of the well-known titles among the ancient royal dynasties of Persia. Kai-kam-bakash was the Greek Cambysis or O.P Kambujiya or Kambaujiya (Kamboja of Sanskrit literature) according to Persian traditions.
The first emperor of Kai dynasty was Kai-Kabad. He ruled in Persia and his Capital was Persipolis. He ruled for 15 years. He was followed by his son Kai-Kaus. Son of Kai-Kaus was married to princess of Turan (Central Asia), a daughter of king Afrasyab. The result of this marital union was the birth of a great king Kai-Khusro who later ruled over Persia. According to interprettations of Historians, Kai-Khusro was the successor of Darius I. The names for these Achamenian kings as appear in Greek are very much corrupted form of actual names of Persian and Hindu traditions. As is stated above the kings of Kai dynasty of the Persian traditions correspond to those from the Achamenian dynasty of the Greek writings and that of O.P Inscriptions. Further, numerous scholars have related the Achaemenian kings to the Persian Kambojas.
Kai Khusro was the this king of Kainid Dynasty. He was the grandson of Kai Kausand son of Siyavush. Name of this king Kai-Khusro is included among the list of most righteous kings and also finds mention in the 8th Hakayat ].
“Rustam placed on throne the founder of a new dynasty that of the Kais, so called because every king’s name is preceded by Kai. The traditional Kais correspond roughly to the historical line of Achamenids or Achamenian Persian dynasty for they end with the conquest of Alexandrera”
Thus from above, the legendary warrior Rustam & his son warrior Suharab belonged to the Persian Kambojas of Kai or Achamenian line. The great warrior Rustam has been described as the shield of Persia.
Thus according to the above view, the Kai was indeed a royal title in Persian traditions for many of kings who correspond roughly to the royal line of the Achamenian kings of Greek writings with whom the Kambojs might indeed be connected through their tradition (Kai+Amboh=Kaimboh=Kamboh).
The Sikhs, by A. H. Bingley, 1970, Language Department, Punjab, p 57, A Glossary of Tribes & Castes,, II, pp 442 ff, Supplementary Glossary p 304, Tarikh-I-Kambohan, p 302 Chaudhury Baha-vu-din, Kamboj Itihaas by Jagan N. Sandhey, Encyclopedia of Sikh Religion & Culture by Romesh Chander Dogra, Dr. Gobind Singh Mansukhani, 1997, p 247.
Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol I by Lt Col James Tod, 1960, p 65
Mahan Kosh 1974, p 348 by Bhai Kahan Singh ji
Ancient Persia & Iranian Civilization by Clement Huart, 1972, p 208, p 210
Kamboj or Kambohs (Urdu: کمبوہ ) is an ancient tribe settled in South Asia.
2 Kamboj in Muslim Age
2.1 Muslim Kambohs
2.1.1 Hazrat Shaikh Alamsayakh Makhdoom Samayuddin Kamboh
2.1.2 Hazrat Shaikh Abdullah Biyabani Kamboh
2.1.3 Shaikh Nasiruddin Delhvi
2.1.4 Shaikh Is-haaq Kamboh
2.1.5 Shaikh Yahya Khan Kamboh
2.1.6 Shaikh Abdul Gafoor alias Ladan Khan
2.1.7 Mufti Jamal Khan Kamboh
2.1.8 Shaikh Fateh Allah
2.1.9 Nawab General Abu Muhammad Khan
2.1.10 Nawab Saddullah Khan Chinioti
2.1.11 Shaikh Jamali Kamboh
2.1.12 Shaikh Abdul Gadai Kamboh
2.1.13 Shaikh Bahawuddin Kamboh
2.1.14 King Yusuf Chak
2.1.15 Shaikh Abdul Aziz Kamboh
2.1.16 Shaikh Abdulhaie Hyati
2.1.17 Khan Jahan Amad-ul-Malik
2.1.18 Shaikh Itmad-ul-Malik Sambhal
2.1.19 Maulana Jaman Khan
2.1.20 Shaikh Khawaja Hasan Multani Kamboh
2.1.21 General Shaikh Hasham Khan Kamboh
2.1.22 Nawab General Amadul Malik Kamboh
2.1.23 Muhammad Akram Khan Kamboh
2.1.24 Shaikh Sharif Khan
2.1.25 Muhammad Husain Kamboh
2.1.26 Mufti Mabu-al-Barkat
2.1.27 Nawab Dadan Khan
2.1.28 Shaikh Lali Kamboh
2.1.29 General Karam Allah
2.1.30 General Ilham Allah
2.1.31 General Ranbaz Khan
2.1.32 General Zainuddin Kamboh
2.1.33 Shaikh Abdul Moman Kamboh
2.1.34 Abu Muhammad Multani
2.1.35 Nawab Bahadhur Khan Meeruti
2.1.36 Muhammad Saleh Kamboh Lahori
2.1.37 Shaikh Inayat-Allah Kamboh
2.1.38 Nawab Mohabbat Khan Kamboh
2.1.39 Mian Ahmed Khan Ban Bhabal Ban Jamal
2.1.40 Khawaja Hasan Kamboh
2.1.41 Muhammad Khan Kamboh
2.1.42 Shaikh Abdul Jalil and Shaikh Ali Ahmed
2.1.43 Nawab General Kheir Andesh Khan (Meerut)
2.1.44 Nawab General Kheir Andesh Khan Sani
2.1.45 Nawab General Kharyat Andesh Khan
2.1.46 General Afit Andesh Khan Kamboh
2.1.47 Nawab Suvab Andesh Khan
2.1.48 General Hakim Al-mulak Imamuddin Khan
2.1.49 General Ramzan Ali
2.1.50 General Hakim Ghulam Ali Khan
2.1.51 Hakim Salamat Ali
2.1.52 Hakim Hazur Ali
2.1.53 Hakim Abu Ali Khan
2.1.54 Amjad Ali Khan
2.1.55 Hamad Ali Khan
2.1.56 Aga Ali Khan and Altaf Hussain
2.1.57 Hakim Anayat Hussain Mahravi alias Inayat Husain b. Fath Allah
2.1.58 Hakim Dayam Khan and Hakim Hazulr Ali Khan
2.1.59 Shaikh Tajjuddin Kamboh
2.1.60 Nawab Farhat Andesh Khan
2.1.61 Mubarak Ali Khan
2.1.62 Ahmed Allah Khan
2.1.63 Asadaulla Khan
2.1.64 Islam allah Khan
2.1.65 Saif Allah Khan
2.1.66 Suvab Andesh Khan
2.1.67 Haji Mumtaz Ali
2.1.68 Muhammad Sadiq
2.1.69 Muhammad Ruh Allah
2.1.70 Hafaz Zahur Alslam, Muhammad Sahib Ali Khan, and Gaziuddin Hussain Khan
2.1.72 Maulvi Mazhar Allah
2.1.73 Altaf Ali Khan
2.1.74 Izhar Hussain Kamboh
2.1.75 Muzaffar Hussain Kamboh
2.1.76 Subhan Ali Khan Kamboh
2.1.77 Ghulam Husain Kamboh
2.1.78 Nawab Waqarul Mulk Maulvi Mushtaq Hussain (Kamboh)
2.1.79 Nawab Dr. Sir Ziauddin Ahmad
2.1.80 Nawab Sir Muhammad Yamin Khan
2.1.81 Maulvi Bashiruddin
2.1.82 Babu Maula Bakhash Kamboh
2.2 Hindu/Sikh Kamboj
2.2.1 Rai Bansi Das Kamboh
2.2.2 Secretary Harkaran Ibn Mathuradas Kamboh Multani
2.2.3 Rai Jado Rai
2.2.4 Rai Narayan Das
2.2.5 Rai Bidi Chand
2.2.6 Rai Dalpat Rai
2.2.7 Rai Raghupati Rai
2.2.8 Rai Khemkaran
2.2.9 Bibi Ramo’s lineage
2.2.10 Raja Bhim Singh Kamboh
2.2.11 The Kambohs
4 Books and Magazines
Kambohs are said to be the modern representatives of ancient Kambojas. They are found as Hindus, Sikhs, Muslims, Persians, Jaina and Buddhists and are mostly confined to northern parts of India, Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan. The original home of the Kambojas was Pamir, Badakshan and northern parts of Tajikstan as far as Zeravshan in Central Asia. From time to time they are known to have entered South Asia and got assimilated into the local population. They have been followers of Zoroastrism, Brahmanism, Buddhism and Jainism in ancient times. With the advent of Islam in 5th/6th century AD and its later introduction into India, a section of Kamboj population switched to Islam. When the Muslim rule was established in India, the Kamboj people, like rest of the Indians, were also influenced by the new faith. The Ghaznavids period was marked by arrival in Punjab of the important spiritual figures like Hazrat Shaikh Ismail and Hazrat Ali Bin Osman popularly known as Data Ganj Baksh. They were successful in converting few of the Kamboj population to Islam (Tarikh-i-Sindh, by Ijazul Haq Quddusi). But the great pioneers of 13th century of the Sufi movement in South Asia were four friends known as Chahar Yaar, viz: (1) Hazrat Fariduddin Masud Ganj Shakar of Pak Pattan (1174-1266), (2) Hazrat Sayed Jalaluddin Bukhari of Uch-Bahawalpur (1196-1294), (3) Hazrat Bahauddin Zakaria of Multan (1170-1267) and (4) Hazrat Lal Shahbaz Qalandar of Sehwan (1177-1274). With their kind efforts, major sections of the numerous clans of Punjab like the Jats, Kamboj, Kharals, Tobians etc had embraced Islam. It is also notable that it were these Kamboj converts to Islam who had, for the convenience of the tongue, transformed the usual ancient Sanskrit and Persian word Kamboj into its current form Kamboh.
These Muslim Kamboj had interacted very favorably with the Lodhi, Pashtun and the Mughal rulers of India and through their hard work and personal abilities, many of them rose to great heights in civil and the military fields and became an important part of the ruling elite while others shone in the field of education and scholarship. Besides Muslim Kamboj, the Hindu Kamboj are also known to have contributed their share in the Mughal administration and management.
Muslim Kambohs (Kambojs) became especially influential and powerful during Mughal rule. General Shahbaz Khan Kamboh was the most trusted general of Akbar.Shaikh Gadai Kamboh was the Sadar-i-Jahan in Akbar’s reign. Numerous other Kamboj are known to have occupied very key civil and military positions through out the Mughal reign.
“The Sayyids and the Kambohs among the Indian Muslims were specially favored for high military and civil positions during Mughal rule”]
“The Indian Muslims, popularly known as Shaikhzadas, belonged largely to certain important clans like the Saiyids of Barha and the Kambohs”
A. L. Basham writes: “The administrative reforms of Akbar changed the structure of even the Muslim leadership. The state was no longer the monopoly of the Mughals, or even the Iranis; the Afghans, and Indian Muslims such as Shaikhzadas, Saiyids, and Kambohs shared in its management. The hereditary status of a new entrant was an important consideration in assigning his first mansab, but promotion depended mainly upon talents and loyalty” .
Abu-Al-Fazal Alami, a prominent historian of the Akbar period, writes that it was a matter of honor to belong to the Kamboh lineage during the reigns of Mughal emperors Akbar and Jahangir and that no Kamboh was in economically bad circumstances in whole of India
Saiyid Waris Shah had to say: “Although the rule of machines has depleted our feelings for one another, yet the Kamboh as a nation to this day is filled with passion”
The Kambohs or Kambojs were classed among the ruling elites during the Muslim rule.
The Moslem rule was a golden period for the Indian Kambojs .
There are numerous notable names of Muslim Kamboj in Indian history which can be mentioned here but more important of them are listed below and described for the knowledge of general readers.
KAMBOJ IN MUSLIM AGE
Hazrat Shaikh Alamsayakh Makhdoom Samayuddin Kamboh
Hazrat Shaikh Alamsayakh Makhdoom Samayuddin Kamboh was born in 1405 AD in Multan, now in Pakistan. His father Maulana Shaikh Fakhrudin was a venerable religious leader of that period. Makhdoom Shaikh Samayuddin was the royal spiritual adviser or Pir, first to emperor Behlol Lodhi, and later to Sikandar Lodhi. He commanded greatest respect amongst the entire Muslim spiritual and religious leaders of his time. The Mazar of Hazrat Shaikh Samayuddin is located in Delhi where the Zubairies of Panipat used to assemble every year for offering Fateha in pre-independence days.
Hazrat Shaikh Abdullah Biyabani Kamboh
Hazrat Shaikh Abdullah Biyabani Kamboh was the son of Hazrat Shaikh Alamsayakh Makhdoom Samayuddin Kamboh. For some reason, he got disillusioned with the emperor of Delhi and retired to a life of seclusion. For eighty summers and eighty winters of his life, Shaikh Biyabani lived in seclusion, in the forests among the wild and ferocious animals, doing the bandagi of Allah. All these years he fed himself only on roots, fruits and leaves of the forest trees. He was dedicated Nimajee and performed five Nimaz (Salat) a day, without exception, and also did one complete reading of the holy Quran every day, but never without having taken showers. He lived over a hundred years of age. It is also stated that he got endowed with some supernatural powers.
Shaikh Nasiruddin Delhvi
Shaikh Nasiruddin Delhvi was second son of Hazrat Shaikh Alamsayakh Makhdoom Samayuddin Kamboh, he was a teacher, educationist and a distinguished scholar of the Shariyat. He occupied the office of Shaikh-ul-Aslam from the times of Sikandar Lodhi till Mughal emperor Babar.
Shaikh Is-haaq Kamboh
Shaikh Is-haaq Kamboh was brother of Hazrat Shaikh Alamsayakh Makhdoom Samayuddin Kamboh. Shaikh Is-haaq was Malak-Alamsayakh v Alhalama according to the evidence furnished by Shaikh Jamali. He was a great scholar of Islam and of Asgar-i-Mahrfat.
Shaikh Yahya Khan Kamboh
Shaikh Yahya Khan Kamboh was bestowed the ruler ship of Aligarh by the Delhi emperor which stayed with his descendants for long time. One of his descendants, Muhammad Sayeed Khan, a Jagirdar of Kol (Aligarh), held a high rank in the army under Shah Jahan. His son Muzzahar Khan remained deputy-governor of Kashmir and Agra. Many of his descendants also occupied very high civil and military ranks during the Mughal rule.
Shaikh Abdul Gafoor alias Ladan Khan
Shaikh Abdul Gafoor was son of Shaikh Nasirudin Kamboh. A renowned scholar and philosopher himself, numerous of his students also turned out to be great scholars and educationists.
Mufti Jamal Khan Kamboh
Mufti Jamal Khan Kamboh was second son of Shaikh Nasiruddin and brother of Shaikh Abdul Gafoor. He remained Mufti (Judge) of Delhi during the reigns of Sikandar Lodhi, Babur, Humayun and Sher Shah Suri and died in 1582 AD at the age of 90. He used to deliver Khutabas and never paid visits to the emperor or the nobles. Rather, he always kept company with the respectable magistrates, scholars and intellectuals. Numerous of his students also became great intellectuals and scholars (Muntakhabhu-I-Tawarikh, Al-Badaoni, Ed Wolseley Haig, Vol III, 1973, p 123-24)
Shaikh Fateh Allah
Shaikh Fateh Allah was also a noted scholar and was greatly respected by the emperors from Sikandar Lodhi through Sher Shah Suri and the other high-ranking officers, courtiers and nobles. He was the son of Shaikh Nasiruddin and grand son of respected Hazrat Shaikh Alamsayakh Makhdoom Samayuddin Kamboh.
Nawab General Abu Muhammad Khan
Nawab General Abu Muhammad Khan grandson of Shaikh Abdul Gafoor. He was an influential courtier of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and later of Aurangzeb. He held a mansab of 1400 and had conquered Hoogly Bandar for the Crown. He constructed one fort in Meerut which is still called after his name. He also established one village called Abu Muhammad Pur after his name. Besides, he also raised many works of public utility including the water pools, inns, mosques and irrigation canals.
Nawab Saddullah Khan Chinioti
Nawab Saddullah Khan Chinioti was the prime minister of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. He had executed his office duties with great skill and responsibility.
Shaikh Jamali Kamboh
Shaikh Jamali Kambohwas also known as Shaikh Hamid bin Fazlullah, Dervish Jamali Kamboh Dehlwi or Jalal Khan. Jamali came from a Sunni merchant family of Kamboh lineage but was initiated into Sufism by the respected teacher Hazrat Shaikh Samayuddin Kamboh. Jamali was a noted Sufi of the Suhrawardiyya sect who died in AD 1536 while accompanying the Mughal Emperor Humayun in the latter’s expedition to Gujarat. He was married to the daughter of Hazrat Shaikh Samayuddin Kamboh and was the tutor of Sultan Sikandar Lodi. He lived at Mehrauli during the reign of Sultan Sikandar Lodi and later composed panegyrics to the first of the Mughal emperor, Babur and his successor Humayun. A great poet of Persian language, Jamali wrote Siyar-l-Arifin (completed between AD 1530 and 1536) in Persian which is an account of the Chishti and Suhrawardi Sufis of the period. Shaikh Jamai died in 1536 AD and his tomb and a mosque known as Jamali-Kamali is situated near the Qutab Minar opposite the Ahinsa Sthal on Mehrauli’s bypass.
Shaikh Abdul Gadai Kamboh
Shaikh Gadai Kamboh was the son of Shaikh Jamali Kamboh. After the second defeat during the ‘exile at Gujarat’, Shaikh Gadai paid a visit to Khan-Khanan and through his influence was appointed the Sadar-i-Sadur or Sadar-i-Jahan (Administrator General) of Akbar in 1563 AD which office he held till death in 1574 AD. The office of ‘Sadar-i-Jahan’ had been very important before the times of Mughals and even during Akbar’s reign, he ranked as the third or fourth most powerful officer in the empire. It was his legal edict which legalized the accession of a new king. By the time of Akbar, the office had however, become corrupt especially so in the administration of grants & pensions and hence after assuming the office, the first thing Shaikh Gadai did was to draw the pen of obliteration through the grants and pensions of old servants of the crown so as to end the corruption ( Glossary of Tribes, p 499, H. A. Rose). Numerous old grantees and pensionees were affected by this action including probably chronicler Al-Badaonmi also and this seems to have earned the wrath of the latter. Al-Badaonmi, accordingly, makes very vitriolic and personal attacks on Shaikh Gadai, apparently annoyed of this drastic action. Emperor Akbar however, had a great respect for Shaikh. Everyone in the Darbar-a-Akbari was required to bow his head and shake his beard to pay obeisance to emperor as he entered the court, but Shaikh Gadai Kamboh was an exception. Rather, the emperor himself would come to the Shaikh to seek his blessings. Shaikh Gadai Kamboh wielded immense powers in the matters of general administration. He had unlimited powers to grant & take back the fiefs and pass on or remit death sentences. He was the highest law officer and it was his legal edict which legalized the accession of the king. He had undertaken numerous reforms including the land reforms during his office tenure. Al-Badaoni, the author of Muntakhbu-a-Twarikh, also writes that Shaikh Gadai Kamboh had obtained the position of Sadar-a-Sadur. In the religious matters, for many years Shaikh Gadai remained a very influential figure among the Pirs and great religious leaders of India, Khorasan, Iran and the Central Asian countries lying beyond the Oxus. He was a born poet and had written numerous poetry in Persian language in a traditional style which he used to sing in scholarly gatherings about which he was always very enthusiastic. The Khan-Khanan and Akbar himself attended these singing parties (Mehfils) at Shaikh Gadai’s palace which Al-Badaoni however, depreciates in severe terms. Shaikh Gadai would regularly visit the Dargahs of Saints, Pirs & religious philosophers and would arrange annual fairs on their ursa. Shaikh breathed his last in 976 Hijri (1574/75).
Shaikh Bahawuddin Kamboh
Not much is known about Bahawuddin Kamboh. He was however an important person inDarbar-i-Akbari since emperor Akbar had deputed him as his embassy to Yusuf Chak , the king of Kashmir, to persuade or force the latter to come to an understanding with Akbar.
King Yusuf Chak
Chak is a well known clan among the modern Kamboj. The Chaks of Kashmir are not its original inhabitants but are known to have migrated there from Daradistan. Since in ancient times, the Daradas and Kambojas were next door neighbors in the cis-Hindukush region, it is very likely that Yusuf Chak, the ruler of Kashmir and his dynasty, could be traceable to ancient clan of the Kambojas living as neighbors to the Daradas in/around Kashmir. It is a known fact of history that ancient Kambojas had ruled over Kashmir during and prior to epic times]. So, it is very possible that the Chaks of Kashmir may not be of Daradic origin but rather may have come from Kamboja background
Shaikh Abdul Aziz Kamboh
According to Muslim historian Wahabuddin Kamboh, Shaikh Abdul Aziz was Prime Minister of emperor Ibrahim Lodhi . But Chaudhry Muhammad Yusuf Hasan advises further research to confirm that Abdul Aziz indeed held the office of Prime Ministership (Tarikh-i-Quam Kamboh, p 309). Historian H. S. Thind, S Kirpal Singh and other scholars write that Abdul Aziz held the office of Prime Minishtership under emperor Ibrahim Lodhi.
Shaikh Abdulhaie Hyati
He was younger son of Shaikh Jamali and brother of Shaikh Gadai Kamboh. He was the Musahib of emperor Salim Shah Suri (1550-1560 AD) which fact is also confirmed by Al-Badaoni. Shaikh Hyati had very good relations both with Salim Shah Suri as well as his father Sher Shah Suri. Shaikh Hyati was a pastmaster in the arts of reciting latifas (titbits) and also wrote many Qasidas in praise of the emperor. He is best known for his hospitality and always played a host to students, poets and qulandaras from Iran, Turan and other trans-Oxian countries who visited Delhi in India. He died at the young age of 36.
Khan Jahan Amad-ul-Malik
He was Mir Adal (Judge) of emperor Sikandar Lodhi.
Shaikh Itmad-ul-Malik Sambhal
In the struggle between Humayun and Sher Shah Suri, Shaikh Itmad-ul-Malik had sided with the latter and supported him with all his resources. Shaikh Itmad-ul-Malik had lost his brother in the battle and later when Sher Suri ascended the throne of Delhi, he appointed Shaikh Itmad-ul-Malik as his Mashir but soon promoted him to Prime Minister. Sher Shah Suri and Shaikh Itmad-ul-Malik are both responsible for the rehabilitation/constriction of the Grand Trunk Road running between Peshawar and Calcutta. The duo is also responsible for the construction of numerous wells, water pools, hospitals and inns for the benefit of the general public. The well-to-do Muslim Kambohj families of Sambhal trace their lineage from Shaikh Itmad-ul-Malik. He died at Sambhal and his tomb is still located there (Silsila Aliya, Anayat Hussain Mahravi & Tarikh-i-quam Kamboh, Muhammad Yusuf Hasan, p 309).
Maulana Jaman Khan
He was the Hajab of emperor Sikandar Lodhi whom he had accompanied during his campaign of Awgantar. The fort was reduced fort in 1511 AD and emperor Sikandar appointed General Mujahid Khan as in charge of the fort. But later a conspiracy came to light which involved both general Mujahid Khan and Maulana Jaman Kamboh. Both were arrested on orders of the emperor and the charge of the fort handed over to Tajuddin Kamboh.
Shaikh Khawaja Hasan Multani Kamboh
He originally belonged to Multan (in Pakistan) but had moved to Marehra during reign of Sikandar Lodhi. Soon he drew the attention of the emperor and impressed him greatly with his abilities and competence. The emperor made Khawaja the ruler of Marehra. Muhammad Khan, the grandson of Khawaja Hasan was married to the daughter of general Shabaz Khan Kamboh, an illustrious General of emperor Akbar.
General Shaikh Hasham Khan Kamboh
Shaikh Hasham Khan was the grandson of Hazrat Shaikh Makhdoom Samayuddin. He held a mansab of 2500 during reign of Mughal emperor Jahangir.
Nawab General Amadul Malik Kamboh
Amadul Malik was grandson of Shaikh Hasham Khan Kamboh. In the later years of Aurangzeb, he was the chief judge of Lahore. During Bahadhur Shah’s reign, Amadul Malik was appointed the governor of Multan. Nawab Amadul Malik held a mansab of 5000 person.
Muhammad Akram Khan Kamboh
Was the chief justice of Delhi during the reign of emperor Aurangzeb.
Shaikh Sharif Khan
He was a senior minister in the reign of Mughal emperor Aurangzeb (History of Lahore).
Muhammad Husain Kamboh
He was a high ranking officer in the reign of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.
He came from the lineage of Shaikh Hasham Khan Kamboh. Was Judge of Delhi.
Nawab Dadan Khan
He was from Kamboh family of Meerut. He remained Governor of Lahore for some time.
Shaikh Lali Kamboh
Was one of the famous nobles of Meerut. He was the author of Lala Bazar of Meerut.
====Nawab General Shahbaz Khan Kamboh==== Shahbaz Khan was one of the most trusted and ablest generals of Mughal emperor Akbar. His real name was Shahrullah and his sixth ancestor was Haji Ismail, a disciple of the renowned saint Bahauddin Zakariya of Multan. He had entered Mughal service during the time of Akbar, drew his attention and was elevated to the rank of Mir Tozak (Quarter-Master General) and later to an Amir. In 1572 he was appointed Mir Bakhshi (Paymaster-General) and the title of ‘Shahbaz Khan’ was conferred on him. As a Mir Bakshi, Shabaz Khabn introduced the system of Dag-o-mahaliwhich had considerably cut down the over-heads as well as the corruption in the military departments of the Crownr. During 21ist year of his service, Shahbaz Khan proceeded against Kalah Rai and Maldeo Rai, the rebel Rathod Rajputs of Jodhpur and brought them under control. He also attacked the fort of Daigur which resulted in the deaths of numerous Rathods. Later, he also reduced the forts of Dunar and Siwanah and was made commandant of these forts by the Crown. During 23rd year of his service, Shahbaz Khan invaded Komelmer and subdued the pride of Rana Partap. Rana Partap escaped in the disguise of an ascetic to avoid the further wrath of Shabaz Khan. Bahadhur Khan-i-Shaibani and his brother Khan Zaman-i-Shaibani were Amir Viziers in the court of Akbar and both were holding big Jagirs. But they rose in rebellion against the crown. With the help of Shabaz Khan Khan, Akbar crushed the rebellion with iron hand. General Khan Zanan-i-Shaibani was killed in the battle but Bahadhur Khan was executed by Shahbaz Khan Kamboh and Rai Bansi Das Kamboh on orders of the Crown . The princes of Goganda, and Udepore also submitted to him. Shahbaz Khan setup 50 police posts in mountainous regions and 30 in the plains to keep control over the rebellious Rajputs. On 18 May 1583, he was appointed Governor of Bengal. Initially, he had commanded 5000 men and had distinguished himself greatly in Bengal, but later when operating in Brahmputra, he had commanded 9000 strong cavalry (Aina-i-Akbari, Blochman’s trans, I, p 399-402). On 15 November 1583, he defeated Masum Khan Kabuli and compelled him to flee to Bhati while Jabbari, an ally of Masum Khan, fled to Kooch Bihar. In 1584, he led an expedition against Isa Khan, initially achieved a considerable success and even ravaged Katrabo, Khizirpur, Sonargaon and Egarasindhur but finally suffered a defeat in the battle of Egarasindur and Bhawal and was forced to turn back to Tanda. With reinforcements sent by Akbar, Shahbaz Khan again marched towards Bhati in 1586 and defeated Isa Khan and forced him to come to an understanding with the Crown. In November 1586, Shahbaz Khan was appointed Bakhshi (Paymaster) of Bengal in which capacity he served for two years before leaving Bengal in 1588. Shahbaz Khan Kamboh had also subdued the pride of Raja Ram Chander Sain, Rai Surjan Handa & Dauda, Raja Gajpati, Rana Sangram and the officers of Surat. He had participated in some of the most difficult expeditions of emperor Akbar and much of the territorial expansion of Akbar was due to General Shahbaz Khan Kamboh. Shahbaz Khan was a very able and efficient General and his military division was always found in excellent conditions. Shahbaz Khan died of illness on 11 November 1606 at Ajmer at the age of over 70 years. He was then on a military expedition against the Rajputs of Rajasthan. Historian Abu-L-Fazl Alami, the author of Aiana-i-Akbari, attests that Shahbaz Khan was a very competent and capable General but Abu-L-Fazal also accuses him of his Sunni fanaticism and arrogance. Many a times, he strongly opposed the emperor, but Akbar had a great regard for Shahbaz Khan and took it lightly. But once, the defiant Shabaz Khan had to be imprisoned and was released only after two years. Emperor Akbar tried his best to bring Shahbaz Khan and another General Qutb-ud-din Muhammad Khan Koka into his new faith known as Din-i-Ilahi but the move was vehemently criticized both by Shabaz Khan Kamboh as well as General Qutb-ud-din Khan. This had created obstacles in his promotion upwards. On the other hand, many incompetent and junior officers got promoted which they did not deserve. The 9000 strong cavalry of General Shabaz Khan is said to have comprised mostly the Kamboj horsemen which included both the Muslim as well as the Hindu Kamboj soldiers. The total annual expenses on his division was over 30 Lakh Indian Ruppees during those times. Shahbaz Khan so much helped the Kamboj that no Kamboh was in economically bad condition at that time (Abu-L-Fazl Alami). He left behind a huge Jagir and treasure which was seized by Jahangir (Salim), son of Emperor Akbar.
General Karam Allah
General Karam Allah was younger brother of Shahbaz Khan Kamboh and held a mansab of 2000 during Akbar and Jahangir’s reign. He was very religious, pure and clean person. He died in 1600 AD
General Ilham Allah
He was the son of Shahbaz Khan. Was Wasika Nawees at Baglana where he died after some time.
General Ranbaz Khan
Was second son of Shahbaz Khan. According to Tozik-i-Jahangiri, (p 248), Ranbaz Khan held a mansab of 1200 person. During the thirteenth year of his service, he was promoted as Wasika Nawees and Bakhshi (General) when he held a Mansab of 5000 persons. He continued to hold this position till 20th year of his service.
General Zainuddin Kamboh
General Zainuddin Kamboh son-in-law of Shahbaz Khan Kamboh and was a sub-general under Amir Kutabbulla Khan (a 5000 mansabdar) which division had fought against Sultan Muzaffar Gujarati. General Kutabbulla Khan was killed in the battle and general Zainuddin Kamboh was arrested and tied to the feet of a wild elephant and crushed to death on orders from Sultan Muzaffar Gujarati.
Shaikh Abdul Moman Kamboh
Shaikh Abdul Moman Kamboh a noble from Sambhal. He held the office of Dewan-e-tan (Accountant General) under Shah Jahan. He performed the duties of granting and taking back the grants and pensions and promoting or demoting the officers of the Crown. Two of his sons also held the offices of Dewan-e-tan and Dewan-e-Khals under Nawab Sadddula Khan Chanyoti (Kamboh). The Muslim nobles of Meerut trace their lineage to Dewan-e-tan Shaikh Abdul Moman Kamboh (Tarikh-i-Qaum Kamboh, 1996, pp 313-314). Nawab Vakar Almalik Maulvi Mushtaq Hussain (Kamboh), a well-known Muslim leader of pre-independence days, the founding father of Muslim League was also from the lineage of Shaikh Abdul Moman Kamboh.
Abu Muhammad Multani
Was son of Shaikh Amad Multani. He was Amir Vizier in the court of Shah Jahan.
Nawab Bahadhur Khan Meeruti
Was also an Amir Vizier in the court of Shah Jahan.
Muhammad Saleh Kamboh Lahori
Was official biographer of the Emperor Shah Jahan and the teacher of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. Little is known of the life of Muhammad Saleh Kamboh Lahori other than the works he composed. He is stated to be younger brother of Inayat-Allah Kamboh and worked as Shahi Dewan with Governor of Lahore. Muhammad Salih is best remembered for his work Amal-i Salih, also referred to as Shah Jahan Namah (The History of Shah Jahan), which work he completed in 1659-60 AD. Amal-i-Salih is an account of the life and reign of Shah Jahan. However, the work also includes information on Shah Jahan’s predecessors (particularly Akbar and Jahangir) and a compendium of biographies of the Shaikhs, poets, and other notables who were contemporaries with Shah Jahan. Muhammad Saleh Kamboh died in 1674 AD.
Shaikh Inayat-Allah Kamboh
(1608-1671): Shaikh Inayat was a historian. He spent his early life in the service of the Mughals and was a Mir Munshi (General) of Shah Jahan, but later retired from the world and lived as a recluse beside a shrine in Delhi. Inayat-Allah Kamboh wrote several historical works, but it was his collection of tales entitled Bahar-i-Danish (completed in 1651 AD), one of the most popular textbooks of Persian, which had brought him the most fame. He died in 1671 AD at Delhi. Historian Muhammad Saleh Kamboh, younger brother of Inayat-Allah Kamboh, has praised Bahar-i-Danish(Springtime of Knowledge) as a model of sophisticated workmanship (See: Muhammad Saleh Kamboh, Vol. 2, 1660: 862). It became part of the syllabi of the Persian schools because it is mentioned in a manuscript-copy ofKhulasatul Makatib, written in 1688. Thus it was used in all the Persian schools, and by all educated men and women, both Muslims and Hindus, were acquainted with it in Mughal India. During British rule too, according to the education reports, it was taught in nearly all the schools and its style and idiom were regarded as the best models of composition (Reid 1852: 54). Bahar-i Danis is a “collection of romantic and lascivious tales dealing with the tricks employed by faithless wives to deceive their doting husbands”, freely adapted from an earlier Indian source Shuka-Saptati into Persian. His another important work is Takmilah-yi-Akbar-Namah which is a continuation of Abu-al-Fazl’s Akbar-Namah as Kamboh narrates the last four years of emperor Akbar’s reign.
Nawab Mohabbat Khan Kamboh
Nawab Mohabbat Khan was governor of Peshawar and was the grandson of Nawab Dadan Khan, who remained for some time the governor of Lahore.
Mian Ahmed Khan Ban Bhabal Ban Jamal
Mian Jamal belonged to Jahangir’s era. He was a noted scholar of Persian and Arabic languages. Tarikh Khan Jani v Makhzan Afgfhani addresses him as Fazal-i-Rozgar Janab Mian Ahmed Kamboh Dehlvi (p 516). Around 1614 A.D, Jamal wrote a famous book calledMadan-e Akhbar-e Ahmadi in Persian language. The author of Makhzan Afghani pays very glowing tributes to his book. The original draft of the book is said to lie at British Museum London.
Khawaja Hasan Kamboh
Khawaja Hasan originally belonged to Multan but moved to Marehra (UP) where he was conferred a big fief and the rulership of Marehra by Pathan emperor Sher Shah Suri. (Ref: Kamboj Itihaas, (Draft), Roshan Din, Nizampur, p 225).
Muhammad Khan Kamboh
He was grandson of Khawaja Hasan and was the ruler of Marehra during Akbar’s reign. He was the son-in-law of famous general of Akbar, Nawab Shahbaz Khan Kamboh.
Shaikh Abdul Jalil and Shaikh Ali Ahmed
They both belonged to Multan (Pakistan). At the end of nineteenth century, they held the offices of Deputy Collectors in British rule.
Nawab General Kheir Andesh Khan (Meerut)
He was the son of Nawab Mohabbat Khan. After Dara Shikoh was assassinated, he joined Aurangzeb’s administration. With competency and his loyalty to the Crown, he was given a mansab of 5000 and was also awarded the title of Kheir Andesh Khan. He was also given an award of 0.7 million Darham for his meritorious military service as Faujdar at Etawa. During Bahadhur Shah’s reign, his mansab was upgraded to 6000 men.
Nawab General Kheir Andesh Khan Sani
Was from Meerut line of Muslim Kamboh. His earlier name was Muhammad Massih. He was the grandson of Kheir Andesh Khan. Under Aurangzeb, Kheir Andesh Khan held a mansab of 1000 which was soon upgraded to 3000. He was also conferred the title of Nek Andesh Khan. During reign of Bahadhur Shah, Kheir Andesh Khan held a Mansab of 5000 which was later upgraded to 6000 men. He was also conferred the title of Kheir Andesh Khan. Kheir Andesh Khan had constructed one fort called Kheir Nagar at Bareilly. He also constructed one Eid-gah and Mubark Mahil in Bareilly. The ruler of Bundhel Khand was also reduced by this general. One of his sons also got the title of Nek Andesh Khan and was also awarded a Jagir of several villages near Bareilly.
Nawab General Kharyat Andesh Khan
Was the second son of Nawab Kheir Andesh Khan. He held a mansab of 5000 men. He was the governor of Kashmir and had constructed the Nawab Bazar there. One of his brothers also got the title of Kheir Andesh Khan Salas during the reign of emperor Ahmed Shah Durani. Nawab Kharyat Andesh Khan also held the governorship of Kashmir.
General Afit Andesh Khan Kamboh
He was son of Kharyat Andesh Khan. In the final years of Mughal rule, he was the Faujdar of Etawa and held a mansab of 2000 men.
Nawab Suvab Andesh Khan
was another Kamboh noble during the last days of Mughal empire. His grandson Fateh Ali Khan rose to very prestigious position during British rule.
General Hakim Al-mulak Imamuddin Khan
He held a mansab of 1500 during emperor Bahadhur Shah Alam Sani’s reign.
General Ramzan Ali
Was son of Hakim Al-mulak Imamuddin Khan. He also held a mansab of 1200 during emperor Bahadhur Shah Alam Sani.
General Hakim Ghulam Ali Khan
held a mansab of 1000 during emperor Muhammad Shah. He also got the title of Hussain Ali Khan.
Hakim Salamat Ali
was Royal Physician of emperor Bahadhur Shah Alam Sani. Was conferred the title ofHazakat Khan.
Hakim Hazur Ali
held a Jagir of seven village in Bijnor and Muradabad. He was Royal Physician of Nawab Asaf Aldaulla.
Hakim Abu Ali Khan
was an Alam Fazal (scholar). He was Kotwal at Banda (Uttar Pradesh), then Tehsildar and later became Advocate of Meerut.
Amjad Ali Khan
He was son of Hakim Abu Ali Khan. Was a Deputy Collector.
Hamad Ali Khan
He was son of Amjad Ali Khan. He did his Bar-at-Law from England in 1885 AD and was a famous Advocate of Meerut.
Aga Ali Khan and Altaf Hussain
Were sons of Hakim Al-mulak Imamuddin Khan. They both were conferred titles of Khan Bahadurs by British government. Were also honorary Magistrates of Kanpur (See: Kamboj Itihas (Draft), Roshan Din Nizampur, p 226).
Hakim Anayat Hussain Mahravi alias Inayat Husain b. Fath Allah
Hakim Anayat Hussain Mahravi was a good scholar and writer. Wrote many books includingSilsilah-i-Aliyah, which treats of the history of the Muslim Kambohs i.e the Shaikh Kambohs. The book contains supplements from Faid Ahmad b. Dildar Ahmad (Meerut).
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Hakim Dayam Khan and Hakim Hazulr Ali Khan
were nobles in the court of Nawab Asaf Aldaula of Oudh. Their descendants currently live an Bijnor and Muradabad in UP.
Shaikh Tajjuddin Kamboh
Shaikh Tajjuddin Kamboh of Muradabad was first Tehsildar and then retired as Deputy Collector.
Nawab Farhat Andesh Khan
He had participated in the 1819 British war against the Gurkhas and was honored by the British Government. He was appointed Revenue Officer and was awarded a large Jagir.
Mubarak Ali Khan
He was son of Nawab Farhat Andesh Khan. He was Deputy Collector and retired in 1857. Later, he was made Honorary Magistrate of Meerut .
Ahmed Allah Khan
He was son of Mubarak Ali Khan. He was Special Honorary Magistrate in 1877 and was conferred the title of Nawab by the English Government.
He was son of Ahmed Allah Khan. He was an honorary Magistrate and was conferred the titles of Khan Bahadur and later of Nawab, by Queen Victoria.
Islam allah Khan
He was brother Asadaulla Khan and son of Ahmed Alla Khan. He was the first Indian to occupy the position Deputy Superintendent of Police and was also conferred the title ofNawab by the English Government.
Saif Allah Khan
He was the second brother of Asadaulla Khan. He retired as Deputy Collector.
Suvab Andesh Khan
of Meerut was awarded a Jagir by British Government of India. He was a very much respected by the English.
Haji Mumtaz Ali
Haji Mumtaz Ali was son of Suvab Andesh Khan. He was a Ambassodar from Wajid Ali Shah the ruler of Oudh to the court of English Governor General of India. After English occupation of Etawa, he was appointed special Magistrate of Etawa.
He was son of Aji Mumtaz Ali Khan. Was Deputy Magistrate and Engineer. He was also conferred the title of Khan Bahadhur by the English Government. Later he became Chief Engineer of Hydrabad State.
Muhammad Ruh Allah
was second son of Haji Mumtaz Ali. He was also the Magistrate of Etawa and was conferred the title of Khan Bahadhur by the British Government.
Hafaz Zahur Alslam, Muhammad Sahib Ali Khan, and Gaziuddin Hussain Khan
Hafaz Zahur Alslam, Muhammad Sahib Ali Khan, and Gaziuddin Hussain Khan from this family were other important persons who held the offices of Deputy Collectors in Uttar Pradesh.
Amam-ud-din held a Jagir of several villages in UP. He was Deputy Collector of Muradabad.
Maulvi Mazhar Allah
Maulvi Mazhar Allah remained home Secretary of Nizam of State of Hydrabad.
Altaf Ali Khan
Altaf Ali Khan was a Jagirdar and well known noble from Bareilly. He belonged to the lineage of Nawab Kheir Andesh Khan Sani who held a 6000 mansab in the reign of Aurangzeb and later that of Bahadhur Shah. The annual income of his Jagir was over 80000 rupees in those days.
Izhar Hussain Kamboh
He was minister at the court of ruler of Oudh. Was knighted and ennobled (Indo Aryans, Contribution Towards The Elucidation of Their ancient and Mediaeval History, Vol II, 1969, p 188, fn, Rajendrar Lal Mitra)
Muzaffar Hussain Kamboh
He was also minister at the court of Oudh. Was also knighted and ennobled (Ibid, p 188, fn, Rajendrar Lal Mitra)
Subhan Ali Khan Kamboh
Subhan Ali Khan was the Deputy Viceregent of Ghaziuddin Hyder, the ruler of Lucknow. Mirza Ghalib received an invitation to a reception in audience by the ruler’s viceregent and was received splendidly in Lucknow through the mediation of Subhan Ali Khan Kamboh.
Ghulam Husain Kamboh
He was a noted scholar and historian of eighteenth century. He is the author of a very useful book known as Tarikh-i-Banaras.
Nawab Waqarul Mulk Maulvi Mushtaq Hussain (Kamboh)
He was born in the Meerut in 24 March 1841 and came of lineage of Shaikh Abdul Momin Kamboh who held the office of Dewan-e-Tun in Shah Jahan’s reign. Vaqar Mulk did his engineering from Engineering College Roorki. He served as a Law Secretary in the Government of Hyderabad Daccan for some time and then joined Revenue Department. Later he was appointed Governor of the newly established State “VRARANGLE” and with his untiring efforts, the state soon became very prosperous. Vaqar Mulk received the title ofNawab Intezar Jung from the Government of Hydrabad. Then he was appointed Revenue Secretary with the orders of Nizam of Daccan. He served as Secretary, Personal Secretary & Advisor to the Prime Minister Nawab Bashiral Daulla. On December 9, 1890, he was awarded the title of Nawab Waqarul Mulk. On October 1892, Nawab Waqarul Mulk joined M.A.O. college in Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh. In December 1906, the quartet Nawab Waqarul Mulk, Sir Agha Khan, Sir Shafi of Lahore and Nawab Salimullah Khan of Dhaka organised a Mohammdan Educational Conference in Calcutta and on the same occasion, they also launched a new party called All India Muslim League of which Nawab Waqarul Mulk became General Secretary. In 1907, he was appointed Honorary Secretary of M.A.O. College. In the same year he resigned from the Secretaryship of the All India Muslim League on health grounds. In 1908, the Government of India honored him with the title ofNawab. It was the magnetising personality of Nawab Waqarul Mulk which had inducedQuaid-e-Azam to join the All India Muslim League which fact changed the history of Indian subcontinent. The welcome address given by Nawab Waqarul Mulk on the occasion is an important document for the Muslims. Due to bad health, Nawab Waqarul Mulk gave up the Secretaryship of Aligarh in 1912 and after a prolonged illness, he died on January 27, 1917.
Nawab Dr. Sir Ziauddin Ahmad
Was born in 1877 at Meerut in the renowned Zuberi (Kamboh) family of India. He obtained his M.A. with distinction in Mathematics in 1898 from Aligarh and D.Sc also with distinction from Allahabad University in 1901. His brilliant academic career won him the scholarship to join the Cambridge University, England in 1901 from where he took his mathematical Tripos topping the University and became a Wrangler. He obtained his Ph.D. degree in 1905 from Gottengen University in Germany. For further education Dr Ziauddin joined Peris University and later Bologna University Italy and then on return to India, he joined the alma mater as a Professor of Mathematics. It was due to his untiring efforts that a Medical and Engineering colleges were founded and the Aligarh Muslim College was converted to Aligarh Muslim University where Dr Ziauddin Ahmad worked as a Lecturer, Professor, Principle, Pro-Vice-Chancelor, Vice-Chancelor and Rector respectively. Dr Ziauddin Ahmad can be reckoned as next to Sir Syed Ahmad Khan in the spread of education among the Muslims who owe him a profound sense of gratitude. Dr Ziauddin played a dominant role in the renaissance of Muslim education in the sub-continent after Sir Syed Ahmad Khan and faithfully carried on the torch of education right to the rank and file of the Muslims throughout the sub-continent. As a very faithful successor of Sir Syed, he carried on the task of educating the people in the teeth of opposition when he proceeded to England to receive the coveted Sir Issac Newton Scholorship. In 1917 Dr. Ziauddin was also appointed member of the Calcutta University Commission of which Sir Michael Saddler was the President. Dr Ziauddin Ahmad rendered yeoman’s services to the Muslims of the sub-continent, worked for their progress and welfare and devoted all his life to the eradication of ignorance and illiteracy. He became member of Legislative Assembly (MLA) of UP in 1991 and 1922. The second Muslim Kamboh Conference held at Marehra (District Etha U.P) on 21st & 22nd April 1935 in Marison Islamia School was presided over by Dr Ziauddin Ahmed. He was one of the earliest members of the All-India Muslim League and stuck to the organization till the end of his life. As desired by Quaid-e-Azam, Dr Ziauddin became Parliamentary Secretary of the Muslim League in the Central Assembly of India in 1938. Dr Ziaddun remained member (M.P.) of Central Assembly of India from 1930 till 1947. In 1946, he was the chief whip of the Muslim League in the Central Assembly. He was awarded the title of Sir by the Government of India. Dr Ziauddin did an outstanding job in Budget-making for the Indian Railways and later also worked with the Reserve Bank of India and he achieved the goals which the Indian National Congress had fought and lost. Dr Sir Ziauddin Ahmad was a trusted Lieutenant and Associate of the Muslim pioneers like Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, Nawab Waqarul Mulk Kamboh, Nawab Mohsinul Mulk, Sir Sultan Muhammad Khan Aga Khan 111, Syedna Tahir Saifuddin, Quaid-e-Azam and Quaid-e-Millat Liaquat Ali Khan. After partition, the family of Dr Sir Ziauddin moved to Pakistan. In August 1947, he was appointed advisor to Government of Pakistan by Quaid-e-Azam Mr Muhammad Ali Jinah. Dr Sir Ziauddin died on December 23, 1947 and in compliance of his wishes, his body was brought to India and buried within the campus of Aligarh Muslim University. Dr Sir Ziauddin Ahmad’s daughter Dr Mrs Aijaz Fatima Tajammul, her husband Dr Tajammul Hussain, and Dr Asim Hussain have done a good job by establishing in Pakistan the important institutions viz: Dr Sir Ziauddin Memorial Hospital, Dr Sir Ziauddin Post-Graduate Medical Institute and Dr Sir Ziauddin Medical College all running under Dr Sir Ziauddin Ahmad University. This was an excellent step to perpetuate the memory of the great scholar and educationist of the Kamboj lineage. Dr Sir Ziaddun was the first Kamboj to have become a member of Indian Parliament (M.P.) and was also the first Kamboj to have been knighted as Sir .
Nawab Sir Muhammad Yamin Khan
He is another very important Kamboh hero of the pre-independence days. Bar-at-law by training, Muhammad Yamin Khan belonged to Meerut and was a prominent legal luminary, statesman, politician, parliamentarian and one of the senior most members of the All India Muslim League. British Government recognized him for his outstanding social and legal services and had knighted him by with the titles of Sir and Nawab. A close confidant ofQuaid-e-Azam, Sir Yamin Khan was a member of the working committee of All India Muslim League. He also remained Deputy President of the Indian legislative council. Sir Muhammad Yamin Khan was also the President of the third Kamboh Conference held in Bareilly in 1936. His brother Chaudhry Muhammad Yamin Khan was also a highly educated person and a prominent Judge of pre-independence period. After partition, the family had moved to Karachi, Pakistan where Sir Muhammad Yamin Khan soon died. Sir Muhammad Yamin Khan was the second Kamboj member to be knighted as Sir and also was the second Kamboj member of the Indian Parliament (M.P.) .
Maulvi Bashiruddin was a great educationist and scholar. He was a close relative of Dr Sir Ziauddin Ahmad. He founded and owned the news paper called Al-Bashir published from Etawah, and also founded The Islamic High School, Etawah. He was also the president of the first Muslim Kamboh Conference held at Meerut in December 1933.
Babu Maula Bakhash Kamboh
He joined the State of Malerkotla as a revenue officer, but was soon promoted and worked as Justice, Collector, Accountant General and Police Chief. Later he was also appointed Revenue Minister of the State. After partition and on the merger of Malerkotla into “Patiala and East Punjab States Union” (PEPSU), Babu Maula Bakhash was appointed its Administrator.
Rai Bansi Das Kamboh
Bansi Das kamboh was minister in the jury of Darbar-i-Akbari and was very close to Nawab General Shahbaz Khan Kamboh. Amir Alamara Khan Zaman-i-Shaibani and his brother Bahadhur Khan-i-Shaibani who held mansabs of 5000 under Akbar rose in rebellion against the Crown which move was crushed by Akbar with the help of Shahbaz Khan. Khan Zaman-i-Shaibani was killed in the fight. General Bahadhur Khan-i-Shaibani was arrested and was handed over to Shahbaz Khan Kamboh and Rai Bansi Das Kamboh. According to Aina-i-Akbari of Abu-al-Fazal Alami, General Bahadhur Khan-i-Shaibani was executed by Shahbaz Khan Kamboh and Rai Bansi Das Kamboh in compliance of orders from emperor Akbar. But according to Tarikh-i-Farishta (Part I, p 710), General Bahadhur Khan-i-Shaibani, being considered a threat to the empire, was executed without waiting orders from the Emperor.
Secretary Harkaran Ibn Mathuradas Kamboh Multani
Secretary Harkaran Ibn Mathuradas Kamboh Multani (d 1631). Harkaran was son of Mathura Das Kamboh and belonged to Multan which was a great center of learning during Mughal reign. Harkaran Kamboh was a noted scholar of Arabic and Persian languages. His father was also a good poet of Persian language. Harkaran is best known for his bookInsa-yi-Harkaran written in Persian language (1625-1631) during the last days of Jahangir and early days of Shah Jehan. The work was compiled between 1625 AD and 1631 AD. It is stated that, one day in the reign of the Emperor Shah Jahan, Harkaran Kamboh had sat at “the seat of Empire in the city of Matura” and devoted himself to improving his skills as Munshi (Secretary). There followed a selection of letters to different classes of people indicating how ‘princes write to princes’, diplomatic (firmans, parwanahs), letters between notables and legal documents including certificate for the sale of a slave girl etc. The result was his famous Insa-yi-Harkaran in Persian language which soon became an established model of excellence. Insa-yi-Harkaran is divided into seven sections and contains models of letters and other documents relating to the State. Furthermore, Insa-yi-Harkaran was also used as a model for diplomatic correspondence with the native princes and potentatesby the British in India and also as a model for school children learning Persian-letter writing in the schools. Not much is known about his other works but Insa-yi- Harkaran was indeed considered an excellent book till British rule. In the beginning of his book, Harkaran introduces himself as Faqir Haqir Hechamdan Azhaf Man Abdullah Al-Samad Harkaran Valad Mathuradas Kamboh Multani.
Rai Jado Rai
He was a noble in the Mughal court during early days of Akbar and had wielded considerable influence. He founded a village called Rai Pore.
Rai Narayan Das
He was son of Rai Jado Rai and also was a noble in the Mughal court during Akbar.
Rai Bidi Chand
He was son of Rai Narayan Das and grandson of Rai Jado. He also wielded a great influence in Jahangir’s court. He expanded the boundaries of his village Rai Pur which he renamed as Raipore Bidi Chand. Rai Bidi Chand had two sons viz Rai Dalpat and Rai Khemkaran and one daughter named Bibi Ramo. The total Jagir in the name of Raipur Bid Chand at this time is said to be 52 villages. Rai Bidi Chand gave 8 villages of his Jagir in marriage to his daughter Bibi Ramo.
Rai Dalpat Rai
He was an important noble in the Mughal court and held a mansab of 1000 men during reign of Shah Jahan. Two Kamboj colonies in Lahore known as Kambohwaras were founded by Rai Dalpat. He also founded another Kamboj colony in Sutar Mandi. Rai Dalpat Rai had five sons viz Haspat Rai, Bhupat Rai, Gajpat Rai, Raghupat Rai and Narpat Rai. Narpat Rai moved to Delhi and permanently settled there. Rai Gajpat Rai was a high ranking military officer but had embraced Islam during Aurangzeb’s rule. He was renamed as Abdul Mahbud Khan Sajani. He was also conferred the title of Nawab. Following the example of Rai Gajpat Rai, the entire Kamboj community of one of the two Kamboj colonies of Lahore also embraced Islam.
Rai Raghupati Rai
was a great landlord from Nibber clan of the Kamboj and was a dedicated Sikh of Guru-Ghar. He had two sons viz: Mool Chand and Amar Chand. Mool Chand was a great warrior and had fought valiantly for the tenth Lord in the battle of Nadaun on March 20, 1691 and achieved martyrdom (Ref: Aina-i-Khemkaran; also: Guru Kian Sakhian, Prof Piara Singh Padam, Index). Amar Chand took Amrit and became S. Amar Singh. He was a renowned Sikh warrior from the Khemkaran and would wield in the battles a double-edged sword (Kharasang or Khanda) said to be weighing over 20 Kilogram according to Sikh chronicler Giani Gian Singh (Kharasang swa man ki, jang vich chalaai). After the martyrdom of Banda Singh Bahadhur, S Amar Singh succeeded him and became the chief of the Bandai Khalsa. In 1723 AD, a pernicious fight broke out between the Tat Khalsa and Bandai Khalsa in thePrikarama of Golden Temple. S. Amar Singh gave a memorable fight but finally achieved martyrdom after killing numerous of his adversaries (Ibid). Bhai Mool Chand had a son called Lakha, who took Amrit and became Bhai Lakha Singh. He was such an illustrious warrior that he was nicknamed Lakha Singh Wad-Partapi (i.e. Lakha Singh, the great & illustrious). With the strength of his own arms, he had greatly expanded the boundaries of Khemkaran. He was greatly respected by Maharaja Ranjit Singh who would always address him as Baba Ji. During Ranjit Singh’s rule, many Sikh Kambohs of Khemkaran held high military ranks in the regiment of Dewan Sawan Mall (a Chopra Khatri) and later of his son Dewan Mool Raj, both Governors of Multan. But numerous other Kambohs from Punjab were, however, organized into a regiment under Akali Phula Singh (a Kamboj Sikh warrior). After Akali’s martyrdom in 1823 AD, most of these Kamboh soldiers are said to have joined the ranks of Dewan Sawan Mall’s regiment and later that of Dewan Mool Raj.
He held the office of Dewan in the court of Shah Jahan. He founded important town called Khemkaran near Kasur which was a very important town before the partition. It now lies on the Indo-Pak border in District Amritsar but has lost all its former prestige and glory. All the Hindu or Sikh Kamboj of Khem Karan referenced above belonged to Nibber clan of the Kamboj.
Bibi Ramo’s lineage
From the lineage of Bibi Ramo (Ram Kaur) came two illustrious personages viz. Raja Sangat Rai and Raja Roshan Rai. Raja Roshan Rai was Dewan of Karam-ud-Din, the Prime Minister of Mughal emperor Bahadhur Shah and was conferred the title of Raja. Raja Sangat Rai was Dewan of the Governor of Lahore and also held the title of Raja. They both belonged to the Nepal or Naipal clan of the Kamboj which is the second most important clan of the Khemkaran Kambojs.
Raja Bhim Singh Kamboh
He was ruler of Sarkap located south of Patti on river Satluj (in district Amritsar). He was among the eight raja or rulers who were mobilised by Abadullah Samad Khan, the Mughal Governor of Punjab against Sikh warrior Banda Singh Bahadhur (Ref: Tarikh-I-Kambohan, Chaudhry Wahabuddin Kamboh; The Later Mughals, by William Irvin). However, according to historian S Kirpal Singh Dardi, Bhim Singh Kamboh was ruler of Sarkap located in Rawalpindi near Taxila.
The Kambohs held Nakodar in Jullundur and Sohna in Gurgaon some centuries ago; and the tombs and mosques that they have left in Sohna show that they must have enjoyed considerable position.
The Sikhs, A. H. Bingley, p 57
Glossary of Tribes and Castes of Punjab and north-West Frontier Province, Vol I, H. A. Rose; Aina-i-Akbari by Abu-L-Fazl Alami, Trans H. Blochman, p 122
The composition of the Mughal nobility, Concise Encyclopedia Britannica, Online
The Mughal Nobility Under Aurangzeb, 2002, p 21, M. Athar Ali
The Mughal Nobility Under Aurangzeb, p 21, M. Athar Ali
Cultural History of India , July, 1999 – Oxford University Press, USA, p 261, A. L. Basham
Aina-i-Akbari, Abu-al-Fazal, English Trans by H. Blochman, Part I, pp 436
Sayed Waris Shah
Kamboj Chetna Manch, 1993, Dr. (Prof) Jaspaul K Dhanju
These Kamboj People, 1979, p 196, K. S. Dardi.
Muntakhbu-a-Twarikh, Trans W. H. Lowe, II, pp 22, 124; Maasiru-ul-Umara, II, pp 540-41.
(verse from Mahabharat 2.27.22)
ete desha udichyastu
Kambojashchaiva Dardashchaiva Barbarashcha Angaukikah ||
Chinashchaiva Tusharashcha Pahlavadhayata narah ||
(Extracts from Kirfel’s Text of Bhuvanakosha countries)
Karana Rajapuram gatva Kamboja nirjita-stvaya, MBH VII.4.5 & MBH 7.91.39-40; See: Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 132-135, Dr H. C. RayChaudhry. The Rajapura of MBH has been identified with Rajaori on the authority of Yuan Chawang
Tarikh-i-Kambohan, Chauhdri Wahhab ud-din Kamboh Amritsari, Nurpur( Layalpur), p 202
Aina-i-Akbari, Abu-al-Fazl Alami, Trans H. Blochman, 1965, Part I, p 347.
Muslim Civilizatiuon in India, New York, Columbia University Press, 1964 , XII. Religion at Akbar’s Court, S. M. Ikram, (Ed) Ainslie T. Embree.
See: Language, Ideology and Power : Language-Learning among the Muslims of Pakistan and North India , p 127, Tariq Rahman (02 May, 2002) – Oxford University Press, USA
Tarikh-i-Qaum Kamboh, 1996, p 347
Tarikh-i-Qaum Kamboh, 1996, p 385
Empire and Information : Intelligence Gathering and Social Communication in India, 1780-1870 (Cambridge Studies in Indian History and Society), Cambridge University Press 2000, p 285, C. A. Bayly, Rajnarayan Chandavarkar, Gordon Johnson, and C.A. Bayly; also: Language, Ideology and Power: Language-Learning among the Muslims of Pakistan and North India, 2002 – Oxford University Press, USA, p 126, Tariq Rahman.
Aiana-i-Khemkaran, Lahore, 1925, p 283, S Partap Singh Nibber.
Panth Parkash, 1970, p 531-532, Giani Gian Singh
op cit, p 531, Giani Gian Singh.
Glossary of Tribes and Castes of Punjab and north-West Frontier Province, Vol II, pp 444-446, H. A. Rose; Punjab Castes, by Ibbeston, 1885, p 148
BOOKS AND MAGAZINES
A Cultural History of India, A. L. Basham
Aina-i-Akbari by Abu Fazal Alami
Tarikh-i-Qaum Kamboh, 1996, Chaudhry Muhammad Yusuf Hasan
The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, S Kipal Singh
Kamboj Itihas, 1972, H. S. Thind
A Draft on Kamboj Itihaas, Roshan Din Nizampur (Pakistan)
These Kamboj People, 1978, S Kirpal Singh
Indo-Aryan, Contribution Towards the Elucidation of Their Ancient and Mediaeval History, 1969, Rajindraraja Mitra
Silsila Aliya, Hakim Anayat Hussain Mahravi
Muntakhabu-i-Tawarikh, Al-Badauni, Trans Wolseley
Punjab Castes, 1970, Denzil Charles Ibbetson
Glossary of Tribes and Castes of Punjab & N.W.F Province, H. A. Rose
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